Different Ideas in Narrative Writing

Narrative writing is one form of writing which tells a story. It is broadly categorized into fiction and nonfiction.  Fictional narrative refers to imaginative events and stories that are not real and did not happen in reality. On the other hand, non-fictional narrative writing tells the real story. The stories are based on the real facts.

Storytelling is an old-age tradition and people still like to hear different stories from their near and dear once. In order to capture the attention of the readers, the writer uses narrative techniques in their writing. They not only entertain the readers through interesting stories, but also teach a moral or lesson to them.

In narrative writing, an author usually shares personal experiences. The writer also adds sensory details so as to create a realistic effect and to involve the readers in the story. Generally, a story consists of a plot, characters, setting, climax and ending part. The writer embellishes the story by using vivid verbs and modifiers.

There are various ideas which can be implemented in the narrative writing. Some ideas, which can be used in narrative writing, are mentioned below:

1.    Share a real incident, which you have experienced and it is hard to forget.
2.    Write about a memorable event of your school or college life. For instance, sports day or annual day.
3.    Imagine you were selected for a reality show. Describe your experience.
4.    Recall your best holiday trip and explain why it was an unforgettable trip.
5.    Pretend your favorite actor came to your house. Write a story and tell about him.
6.    Have you ever been to a place which is haunted? Share with others about your experience like what you felt, what you saw and how did you managed to return from that place.
7.    Write about the memories connected to your college life.
8.    Write about an event related to your childhood days.  Describe the most memorable childhood event, which is important and special for you.
9.    Write about the incident when you were embarrassed.
10.     Share an event when your parents felt proud.

How to Write a Biography Format

A biography is a story of someone’s life, which is mainly written by another person. Based on the information, a biography can be written short or it can be written long. A short biography contains a person’s basic fact of life and their significance, whereas a long biography describes the entire life story of a person. Generally, biographies are the life stories of famous personalities that highlight different aspects of their life. The main objective of writing a biography is to reveal the surprising facts of famous person’s life. Let us understand how to write biography in an appropriate manner.

1.  Select a Person: Whether you want to write a biography of a popular person or close friend and relative, you have to choose a person first. Before selecting a person, ask yourself that whose life has inspired you and whom you admire the most.

2.  Gather important information about the person’s life: Collect minute details that can help you in writing a good biography. Right from the birthday to birth place, education, work experience, relationship, marriage and achievements, collect all the basic facts that you need for writing a life story of a person. Besides this, include the major events or the turning points that have changed the life of the person.

3. Start a biography with an introductory paragraph: Write an overview of the person’s life by highlighting the main points.

4. Write about the achievements: Mention the achievements and accolades of the popular personality. Describe the milestones of the person, which he or she has attained or reached. Mention significant facts like:- 

•    How he or she became famous?
•    What made him or her popular?
•    What are his or her contributions to the society?

5. Arranged the information an organized manner: Write the life story of the person in a chronological order. First explain the past life of the person, then describe the current situation. In this way, you can highlight all the phases of a person’s life and can involve your readers in your writing.

6.  Collect additional information: Do some research and collect the information about the person, which is not known to many people.

7.  Summary: Wrap up the biography by emphasizing on the key points. Make sure that you do not mention any new fact, which you have not mentioned at the beginning.

How to Improve English Writing Skills

English language is accepted as the global language. It is also considered an international language of business. Besides, English language is also used as a medium of communication in MNCs, educational institutes, embassies and all over the world. In today’s fast paced era, it is extremely essential to have a good command of the English language. Whether spoken or written, one can master the English language through regular practice. In order to gain proficiency in English writing, a student needs to do a lot practice. Here, some useful tips are discussed that will help you in improving your English writing skills.

1.    Practice writing on a regular basis: Develop a habit of writing something in English on a daily basis. You can maintain a dairy and can write your daily life experience. Gradually, you will see an improvement in your writing skill.

2.    Choose a topic and write: Pick a topic from newspaper or any topic that comes to your mind. For example, write about global warming. Discuss the impact of global warming on the environment. You can also present your views on climate change.

3.    Take assistance from online resources: If you get stuck while writing something, then take help from online resources. Use online resources to understand the meaning of a word or to check grammar.

4.  Think out of the box: Be creative and brainstorm some ideas that are different as well as interesting. Try to write something different that pop up in your brain. In this way, you can showcase your creativity and improve your writing skills.

5.   Take help from a friend to judge your writing: Take assistance from a friend who knows English thoroughly and can edit your piece of writing. If your friend will read and edit your work, then you will be able to understand your level of improvement. In addition to this, he or she will also help you in determining the mistakes, which you have ignored.

English Vocabulary with Meaning and Sentences

Vocabulary is the words that make up a language. It also refers to phrases of two or more words such as ‘pleasure to meet you’, ‘good morning’ or ‘how do you do’. These phrases include more than one word that is meaningful. Hence, vocabulary can be defined as the words of language as well as phrases and portion of words that convey a specific meaning like the way a single word do. In other words, vocabulary is a group of words or phrases that are alphabetically arranged and defined.

English vocabulary plays a major role in language as it helps an individual to express his or her thoughts in a correct and coherent manner. Let see from below examples how vocabularies are used to make sentences.

1.    Able : Can do or capable of doing something
•    Sharon will be able to complete her studies.

2.    Accept: Approval or agreement
•    Erick has accepted my proposal.    

3.    Accident: Unplanned event or sudden
•    I accidentally deleted my work on the computer.

4.    Advise: An opinion or recommendation
•    The best advice my mother ever gave me was to be kind to others. 

5.    Avoid: Stay away
•    I always avoid arguments with friends.

6.    Ban: Prohibit or forbid
•    Some drugs are banned in many countries.

7.    Barrier: An obstacle
•    The Himalayan ranges act as a barrier between Arunachal Pradesh and Tibet.

8.    Belief: Faith or devotion
•    I have a strong belief in god.

9.    Calm: Peaceful or quiet
•    I prefer to study in a calm and quiet place.

10.    Cause: A reason
•    The event is organized for a good cause.

11.    Claim: To assert or declare
•    She went to her native place to claim her property.

12.    Destroy: Devastate or demolish
•    The earthquake destroyed everything in Japan.

13.    Express: To convey an idea or to communicate
•    She expressed her love for her family.

14.    Fair: Impartial or pleasing to the eyes.
•    The judgement was fair.

15.    Gather: Assemble
•    Everyone gathered at the church for the Christmas Eve.

What are Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers and it's Examples

A modifier is a clause, phrase or word that modifies another word. Hence, an adverb and adjective are also considered modifiers as they change the meaning of another word or add a description to it. Apart from adjective and adverb modifiers, there are some modifiers that make the sentence confusing, unclear or humorous. A misplaced modifier is a modifier that is put in the wrong place in the sentence. Besides, the phrase, which does not mention a subject, is considered a dangling modifier. Let us understand the misplaced and dangling modifiers in detail.

Misplaced Modifier
A misplaced modifier is a type of modifier that is placed in the wrong part of the sentence. It can be determined when the subject of the modifier is confusing.


•    The clock was too old in the store. (Misplaced modifier)
•    The clock in the store was too old. (Correctly placed modifier)

•    She served the coffee to the guest on paper cups. (Misplaced modifier)
•    She served the guest coffee on paper cups. (Correctly placed modifier)

•    He saw a monkey on the way to the store. (Misplaced modifier)
•    On the way to the store, he saw a monkey. (Correctly placed modifier)

Dangling Modifier    

At times, when writing a sentence in a hurry, we often ignore adding a subject to describe who has done or for whom the action is intended, which makes the sentence meaningless or incomplete. Such sentences contain words or phrases that are recognized as the dangling modifiers. In simple words, dangling modifiers are the phrases and clauses that are not clearly related to the words that are modified.

Key points to remember:

1.    A dangling modifier cannot be corrected by moving it to a different place in a sentence.
2.    Generally, it comes at the beginning of the sentence. Besides, it can also appear at the end of the sentence.


•    When six years old, my father enrolled in music classes. (Dangling modifier)
•    When I was six years old, my father enrolled in music classes. (Corrected modifier)

•    Having looked through the bakery shop, the cake I wanted was not there. (Dangling modifier)
•    Having looked through the bakery shop, I realized that the cake I wanted was not there. (Corrected modifier)

•    Arrived at the airport early to not miss my flight. (Dangling modifier)
•    I arrived at the airport early to not miss my flight. (Corrected modifier)

Sentence Fragments and its Types

“United we stand, divided we fall.” a very popular saying in the English language. Wondering what has this saying in connection to the topic. If we analyse the sentence we find that it explains the very nature of the sentence wherein each group of words is meaningless unless we have some subject defined in between which adds value to the sentence. These groups of word which do not have any importance of its own are termed as sentence fragments. In the above saying, united stand, divided fall does not give a definite thought on its own, but when “we” is added as a subject, it gives the sentence a complete meaning. Other sentence fragments are those which either lack a subject or lack an action or is a dependent clause standing alone. Setting the context, let us understand the different types of sentence fragments which are commonly used.

•  Prepositional Phrase: Fragments starting with a preposition like in, above, near, etc are an ideal way to start a sentence but should not be used everywhere else it may sound repetitive. For example:  In spite of injury, I won the match. In the above example, I won the match is the main clause.

•  Appositional Phrase: These kinds of fragment add an extra meaning to the sentence. The sentences without appositional fragments would also have its own meaning; these fragments add an extra dimension to the dimension. For example: My friend, Tommy, is an excellent speaker.

•    Participial Phrase: These types of fragment use past tense, which acts as an adjective.

•   Gerund Phrase: These types of fragments use a verb ending within. This makes the gerund sound like a noun. For example: I earn part time money, driving cab on weekends.

•   Infinitive Phrase: Fragments use the infinitive form of “to” verb. For example: To break a record, he swam across the Panama Canal.

•  Adjective Clause: Who, which, that which describes the noun of the clause are called adjective clauses.

•    Adverb Clause: These fragments describe the verb of the main clause.

What is Parallel Structure in Literature

In English literature, parallel structure refers to similar types of words that show two or more ideas, which have the same level of importance. In other words, parallel structure is the repetition of two or more words, phrases and clauses that are same in length and grammatical form. The parallel structure maintains clarity and balances a piece of writing.

It is a kind of technique that is specifically used to highlight essential information or to draw attention of the readers on the key points in your literary work. In a piece of writing, a writer uses the same pattern of words to show the ideas or words of equal importance. Besides, to help readers understand what is being conveyed. Let us understand the parallel structure with the help of below mentioned examples.

•    Annie likes singing, dancing and acting.

•    John likes paragliding, river rafting and hiking.

•    The student was asked to write his paper neatly, quickly and correctly.

•    My brother spent his weekends watching TV, eating junk foods and napping.

•    Veronica bought a dress, a pair of high heel stilettos and a scarf.

•    Whether at the office or at home, she was always busy.

•    In order to survive, you need food, water and shelter.

•    Easy come, easy go.

•    What goes around comes around.

•    Kate like only those movies that have a mystery, thriller and romance.

•    She is cunning and egotistic.

•    My favourite foods are pizza, pasta and burger.

Parallel structure not only presents the ideas in a logical manner, but also creates a kind of rhythm in the language a writer uses. In English grammar, parallel structure is also called parallelism. Parallelism is a method that is used to make the sentence persuasive. The repetition of a phrase or word allows a smooth flow of ideas.

How to Identify Parts of Speech in a Paragraph

In English grammar, parts of speech are considered the base of all types writing and reading. Parts of speech are groups of words that own similar grammatical properties. According to the English grammar, these are categorized into eight parts, which includes noun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, pronoun, conjunction and interjection.

The parts of speech help us in recognizing how a word is used in a sentence. Sometimes, the same word acts as a noun in one sentence and an adjective or verb in another sentence. For example, ‘All types of books are available in the library’ (Here, the ‘books’ is the noun). Let see another sentence, ‘Joe stand in a queue to book the movie ticket’. (Here, ‘book’ is a verb)

It is essential for students to understand how to identify parts of speech in a sentence or paragraph. This will enable them to comprehend what they read. Understanding the correct use of each part of speech will also help students to write meaningful and correct sentences. Let us see how to determine each part of speech in the paragraph.

1.   Noun: A noun can be a person, idea, place or thing. Generally, a noun acts as the subject of the sentence and also acts as a direct and indirect object. For example, ‘Sam’, ‘James’, ‘Africa’, ‘Japan’, ‘Window’, ‘Chair’ and ‘Goodness’ are nouns. A noun can be singular and plural and will be present in every sentence.

2.  Adjective: The role of adjectives is to describe and modify the nouns and pronouns in the sentence. It gives answers to the questions like ‘what kind’, ‘how many’, or ‘which one’. For instance, ‘beautiful’, ‘expressionless’, ‘Russian’, ‘American’, ‘bigger’, ‘blue-eyed’, ‘well behaved’, ‘polite’, etc. are adjectives.

3.  Verb: A verb expresses some kind of action, happening or state of being. The action or occurrence can be described in different tenses including past, present and future. For example, ‘run’, ‘hear’, ‘dance’, ‘write’, ‘drive’, etc.

4.  Adverb: Adverbs are those words that modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. For example, ‘quickly’, ‘slowly’, ‘loudly’, ‘unfortunately’, ‘angrily’, ‘happily’ and ‘gracefully’ are adverb.

5.  Preposition: The role of preposition is to join a noun, pronoun or noun phrase to other part of the sentence. In simple words, it explains a relationship between other words in a sentence. For instance, ‘under’, ‘next to’, ‘over’, ‘into’, ‘across’, ‘in’, ‘at’ and ‘with’, etc. are prepositions.

6. Conjunction: Conjunctions are those words that link other word, phrase and clauses in a sentence. For instance, ‘but’, ‘so’, ‘for’, ‘nor’, ‘or’, etc.

7.  Pronoun: Pronouns are those words that replace nouns or take the place of nouns in a sentence. For example, ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘I’, ‘few’, ‘many’, ‘everyone’, ‘someone’ and ‘everybody’ are pronouns.

8.  Interjection: Interjections in a sentence are the words that make an exclamation. For instance, ‘wow’, ‘what’, ‘oh’, ‘hey’, ‘ouch’, etc.

What are the different uses of infinitives

Infinitives are basically of two types viz: verb with “to” and without “to”. Infinitives without “to” are called as the base verbs.

Usage of To-Infinitive:

1.    To-Infinitive can be used to serve as a subject of the sentence: This kind of usage is very common in day to day writing. For example:

•    To learn algebra, that is our main objective.
•    To visit Disneyland is my long cherished dream.

2.    To-Infinitive can be used to depict the purpose of action: These help in answering the “why” part of any activity being done. For example:

•    He came to school to learn physics.
•    John came to collect his baseball bat.

3.    To –Infinitive can be used to denote what can be done with some object:  In such cases to-infinitive will follow a noun or pronoun. For example:

•    I would prefer denim to wear.
•    Children would need a playground to play football.

4.    To-Infinitive to make a comment or judgment:  While using to infinitive to make a comment the structure can be subject +to be a noun +noun phrase +to infinitive. For example:

•    John is the right person to hire.
•    It is a wrong place to park.

5.    To-Infinitive as adverbs: To infinitives are very commonly used with adverbs like “too” and “enough” to specify the reason behind an outcome. Too and enough are placed intelligently in such a manner before or after the adjective that they modify the sentence even without the ‘to infinitive’ and at the same time might sound grammatically correct. For example:

•    I had too many files to carry.
•    The food is too hot to eat
•    Tom is quite mature enough to take his own decisions.

6.    To –Infinitives after adjectives: This is also a common pattern of using to infinitives. For example:

•    It is important to be knowledgeable.
•    It is good to speak any language fluently.
•    He did not have the permission to play.

7.    Usage of Base Infinitive: Base infinitive or zero infinitives can be used after auxiliaries, after verbs of perception, after expressions, etc. For example:

•    We heard them fighting behind the closed door.
•    Would you like a cup of coffee or tea?
•    He had better work harder on his homework.
•    Let’s go to the party tonight.

What are the Effective Proofreading Strategies

Proofreading is the one of the stages of the writing process. It is a method of identifying different errors, including typographical, grammar, spelling and punctuation and the formatting and style of a piece of writing. Proofreading is the final step in a writing process. After writing a document, a writer usually proofreads his or her written stuff so as to maintain accuracy.

It is imperative to understand that when you write something, you need to revise, edit and proofread it thoroughly. Revising means rearranging or replacing the words and sentences. Editing refers to finding grammar and spelling errors and proofreading means checking the typo errors and formatting of the document. Let us see some useful and effective proofreading strategies.

1.  Take enough time: Whether you are writing an essay or a research paper, you are likely to make mistakes in a hurry. After completing one paragraph, proofread the sentence as you may find errors or structural problem in your writing.

2.   Always refer a dictionary and a citation guide: While proofreading if you come across a word or a statement, which you have never heard or you are not able to recollect, then it is ideal to refer a dictionary and citation guide. Check in-text citation carefully and verify the source from the reference list.

3.  Read the document backward: Sometimes, it is difficult to find out your own mistakes. Hence, it is ideal to read your written stuff backward. Read paragraph by paragraph or sentence by sentence. This will help you in identifying the mistakes more quickly and easily.

4.  Read aloud: It is good to read the document aloud and slowly as it will help you in determining the flaws, including missing words, run-on sentences and typo errors.

5.  Mark the verbs: Mark the verbs in the sentence so as to identify passive voice.

6. Read the paper as a reader: Read the document as a different person. This will help you in determining whether your thoughts are precisely communicated to the target audience.

7. Keep an eye on the most common mistakes: If you often make common mistakes, then keep a close check on the errors when reading the document.

What are the Characteristics of Expository Writing

Expository writing is a one form of writing that educates, explain and inform something important to the reader or listener. This type of writing is mostly used in the academic area. Expository writing is also found in newspapers, instruction manuals, magazines and educational articles. The writing style of the expository writing is different from other forms of writing. It is written in a clear, concise and logical manner so as to convey the information correctly to the readers. In expository writing, the writer analyzes the subject thoroughly based on the available facts and evidences. Hence, the information presented to the readers is generally unbiased. 

When writing an expository essay, it is not necessary that the reader or listener have prior knowledge or understanding about the topic that is being described. Hence, the information should be presented to the readers in an organized manner. A general expository essay contains an introductory paragraph in which a thesis is being discussed and two to three body paragraph that describe or explain the thesis with the help of supporting facts. Besides, it also includes a concluding paragraph that summed up the main topic.

Characteristics of Expository Writing

•    Informative and useful: This form of writing intends to give essential information to the readers or listeners.

•    Clear and concise: The texts are written in a clear and concise manner in order to educate the audience.

•    Proper arrangement of the texts: The expository writing is always written in a chronological order. It is written by concentrating on the main topic.

•    Appropriate evidences: In the body paragraph of the expository writing, all the facts and evidences are provided to support the thesis or topic.

•    Impersonal: Instead of ‘I’ or ‘me’, this form of writing uses third person.

•    Fair and balanced: Expository writing indicates the view or opinion of the writer. The information is provided to readers in a fair and unbiased manner. 

What are the Components of Thesis Writing

A thesis is a dissertation, which is written on a specific topic or subject. When you write a brief introduction about the topic, you also state your point of view on that topic, which is known as a thesis statement. A thesis writing is a completely an academic form of writing. In this form of writing, a student needs to conduct a thorough research in order to present an original thesis. A thesis statement is an argument that guides the rest of the paper. It tells the reader that how you will discuss the importance of the subject matter. Let us see the components of the thesis writing in detail.

The Initial Pages

1.  Cover Page or Title Page: The cover page encompasses the title of the thesis, the name of the candidate, qualification, department, university, thesis details and completion date.

2.  Approval Sheet: This sheet contains the proof that the candidate (author) has met the requirement required for the thesis. This is duly signed by the thesis adviser, the panel and the Dean. It also consists of the grades scored by the author.

3.  Abstract: It covers the brief summary of the thesis. The main objective of the abstract part is to make your readers aware about the most essential information from the whole text.

4.  Acknowledgement: This page is meant to convey gratitude to your instructor or adviser and the people who have helped the candidate or author in completing the thesis.

5. Dedication: This page is especially for some specific people who have inspired the researchers/author at the time of writing thesis.

6.   Table of Content: It includes all important divisions and chapter titles.

7.  List of Tables/ List of Figures: It contains a list of figures and a list of tables. Each list is mentioned in a separate page.

The Text (Content) of the Thesis

1.   Introduction: This part of the thesis writing introduces to the topic or problem of your thesis.

2.  Literature Review: It gives an insight into the previous studies, which is related to the topic or problem. Through this section, a reader will be able to understand why research is conducted on a particular topic. It shows the achievements and limitations of the previous research.

3.  Chapters in a Chronological Order: It provides in-depth description of the theoretical as well as experimental work. Besides, it also shows the results as well as its significance. Every chapter provides an introduction along with the objective and short summary stating the important findings of the chapter.

4.  Conclusion and Recommendation: Based on the findings of the research, a conclusion is written by the author. The page also contains recommendations for future research.

5.  Bibliography and Reference: It contains the records of the work that have been referred in the text of the thesis.

6. Appendices: It encompasses extra table or graphs of detailed data, statistical analyses and interview transcripts. In the appendix section, the copies of published papers are usually enclosed in the dissertation.

Tips on Writing Hooks for Essays

In English language, hooks are those lines that capture the reader’s attention and arouse their interest in reading. In simple words, hooks are opening sentences that grab the attention of the readers and persuade them to read the entire text. A hook can be a punch line, article, essay, quote, story or a phrase. When writing an article, essay or punch line, it is extremely important to start it with a good hook so as to hold the attention of the readers and make them want to read the text that comes next. Let us understand how to write a good hook for essays.

1.  Use quotes from famous person: Writing a good essay is little difficult sometimes. If you want to grab the attention of your readers, then include a quote from the most successful and famous people. It will help you to convince your readers on what you want to say. In simple words, a quote will support your statement. Make sure that the quote you will use should relevant to your essay topic.

2.   Begin your first line with a question: If your essay topic demands an answer, then it is ideal to start the first sentence with a question. This will stimulate the interest of the reader and also enables you to reveal the information in a step-by-step manner.

3.  Use an anecdote or joke: Sometimes including humorous in the texts spark the interest of the reader. Hence, you can begin your essay with a humorous anecdote so as to make it amusing and interesting for the readers.

4.   Create a scene: Set a scene in your essay. Explain an event or describe something about a person who is relevant to your essay topic. This will help you to involve your readers in your writing. 

5.  Provide factual information: If you are writing a persuasive essay, then it is good to include some facts and data. The factual information will support your argument and also convince the readers with your opinion.

6.  State your main point: You can also start your essay by stating the main point and later you can support your view point in the rest of the paragraphs. If your topic is really interesting, then it will surely grab the attention of the readers.

7.  Use analogy: By using analogy in the sentence, you can create vivid pictures in the reader’s mind. This will allow them to visualize the things, which you want to convey.

Well here is the way where you can get more in depth knowledge about hooks like Creating Hook, and Types of Hook.

How to Write an Autobiography Step-by-Step

An autobiography is information about a person’s own life that is described by that person only. In simple words, an autobiography is a record of a person’s life, which is written by that person. In an autobiography, a person shares his or her personal experiences with others. It is a literary work that is presented in various forms such as movie, books or audio recording. One can also take the help of a co-author when writing an autobiography. An autobiography is more interesting than a biography as the author narrates his or her own life story to the readers. Let us understand how to write an autobiography in a step-by-step manner.

•  Read the autobiographies of others: Writing about your life experience is easy, but it is good if you can write in a particular style. Read the autobiographies of other authors and observe the order in which they describe their life story and the level of details they provide.

•  Select one of the best memories: Look into your past and choose all those memories that you still cherish and want to discuss with others. Write about those memories that are touching and melt your heart.

•  Structure your life story in a coherent manner: Arrange your thoughts in a proper order. Start the sentence with your present life and later talk about the events of your past that you cherish, including your achievements.

•  Be truthful: Be honest with your readers. Describe the ups and down of your life, so that your readers will understand the problems you have faced. Apart from this, they will get a chance to know your greatest achievements.

•  Add sensory details: Explain the most memorable and important event of your life with the readers. Create an image in the reader’s mind by adding sensory details.

•  Conclusion: Sum up the entire story in an organized manner. Besides, you can also tell your readers about your plans for the future.

•  Proofread: Proofreading is an essential task after writing an autobiography. It will help you in identifying the grammar errors, subject-verb agreement and the order in which you have narrated your life story.

Get more elaborated ideas on how to write an autobiography.

What is the Difference between Definite and Indefinite Articles

In English grammar, an article is identified as a small word that introduces and refers to a noun. It can be a place, thing, person or an idea. For instance, a pencil or an elephant or the Eiffel Tower (Here, a, an or the are articles that introduce noun). Articles are primarily categorized into two parts, one is the definite article and another is an indefinite article. ‘An’ and ‘a’ are indefinite articles and ‘the’ is a definite article. Let us understand the different between definite and indefinite article and the rules to use them correctly.

Definite Article

A definite article is an article, which introduces or indicates a specific noun. It talks about something specific which is already known to the listener.
For instance:
•    The Taj Mahal is the symbol of love
•    I want to have the banana milkshake.

In above mentioned sentences, ‘the’ is a definite article that signifies a particular noun.

Indefinite Article

An indefinite article is an article that identifies or introduces an unspecified noun. In simple words, an indefinite article introduces not a specific or a particular noun. It is used when a speaker or writer is talking about a thing in general.
For instance:
•    John wants an iPod
•    Do you have a paper?
•    This is an extraordinary place.

In the aforesaid sentences, ‘an’ and ‘a’ are indefinite articles that refer to things which are new and introduces to a listener for the first time. Besides, these articles are also used when a writer or speaker is asking about the existence of something.

The difference between the definite and indefinite articles can be seen in the following sentences.

•    I want an ice-cream.
•    I want the vanilla ice-cream.

The first sentence talks about any number of ice-cream as ‘an’ is used to introduce indefinite ice-creams. On the other hand, the second sentence talks about a particular flavor of an ice-cream. Hence, article ‘the’ refers to definite or a specific ice-cream flavor.

Use of definite article (The)

•    It can be used to indicate a noun that has been specified before.
•    It is used to refer a noun that is unique.
•    It is used to refer to a time period.
•    It is used indicate a natural phenomenon
•    It is used to introduce all the members of a family.

Use of indefinite article (An and A)

•    It is used before some numbers.
•    It is used before unspecified singular noun.
•    It is used with nouns to form adverbial phrases of amount, or quantity.
•    It is used before the singular noun, which is followed by a modifier.

What are Pre Writing Strategies?

Writing is a means of communication, which represents a language through signs and symbols.  In simple words, writing is the way of expressing or describing thoughts and emotions on a paper. Prewriting is an essential part of the writing process. It is the initial stage and at this stage, we search and look for the ideas and thoughts so as to convey it on the paper. There are various prewriting techniques, which we use in our day-to-day life activities. Some of the important prewriting strategies are listed below:

•   Brainstorming: Brainstorming means writing or listing the ideas, thoughts and views that come to your mind.  Write down the ideas that come into your mind, and from all those ideas, you can choose and create a topic, which you can describe well.

•   Free Writing: Free writing is the step in which you create a lot of information by writing about a particular topic. It is the process that encourages you to write whatever comes to your mind. Set a time-limit and write anything that makes sense, even if nothing particular comes to mind, then also you must write.  At this stage, you should jot down the ideas on a paper before you conduct research on the topic. In this form of writing, spelling or grammar errors are considered secondary things instead you need to focus on the information you have generated and written on a paper.

•   Clustering: Clustering is a process of mind mapping. At this stage, you draw a circle in your mind and keep the main idea in the center. Similarly, you draw new ideas or sub-ideas in your mind and link these ideas to the main idea. In this way, you can identify the relationship between ideas and how these fit with each other. By clustering your ideas, you can visually plan how you will present your ideas to the readers.

•   Looping: Looping is a free-writing method that enables you to concentrate on your idea or thought in order to create a topic for writing.

•   Journalistic Technique: According to journalist point of view, the writing starts with 5W’s and 1 H (Who, What, When, Why and How). Based on the six important questions, you can discover the topic, which you will be writing. These questions are often used when describing an event or incident. Let us understand the 5 W’s and 1H in detail.

Who – Who are the person involved in the event or conflict.

What – What is the topic or issue? What is the importance of the topic or issue?

Where – Where refers to the place. Where the issues or activities took place?

When – When refers to the time period (past, present or future). When did the problem or issue arise?

Why – Why did the issue or incident take place?    

How – How does the issue or incident affect the participant?

What is the Importance of Drafting in English Grammar

Writing is a great way of conveying the ideas that come to your mind. In English language, there are various steps of writing process. The writer usually follows these steps and communicates their ideas or thoughts more clearly and concisely to the audience. The steps involved in the writing process are pre-writing, drafting, revising, editing and publishing. Every step is important and plays a major role in creating a piece of writing meaningful for the readers.

Pre writing is the first stage of the writing process. At this stage, the students brainstorm ideas or map out their thoughts by using diagrams. The second stage of the writing process is drafting stage. It is the stage when a writer drafts his or her ideas on a paper.  At this stage, ideas or thoughts are expressed by the writer in a coherent manner. The third stage is the revising stage and at this stage a writer modifies and rearranges the content in order to make it readable for the audience. The fourth stage is the editing stage in which a writer proofreads his or her content and also checks for the grammar errors. The last stage is the publishing stage and at this stage, the ideas and thoughts are shared with the audience.

In English language, the importance of drafting is immeasurable. When a writer chooses a topic or an idea, he or she checks certain things like whether the topic or content is appropriate and the tone is correct for the audience. A draft for an essay or research paper is designed with the help of an introduction, thesis statement, body paragraph and the conclusion. Through an interesting introductory paragraph, a writer tries to capture the attention of the reader. A thesis statement paves the way for the rest of the content. The body paragraph contains all the evidences to support the thesis statement. Further, the conclusion paragraph sums up the entire idea in an organized manner. Hence, the drafting part encompasses the essential elements in a writing process.

What is the Difference between Revising and Editing

Revising and editing are the two most important stages of the writing process. Through these stages, a writer not only re-writes the content, but also organized it in a sequential manner so as to ensure clarity. A lot of people confuse between revising and editing as they did not understand the changes that need to be made to a document. Revising and editing are two different processes. A revising stage is a continual process of writing or re-writing, whereas an editing is a process of grammar or punctuation correction. Let us understand the difference between revising and editing in detail.

•    In the revising stage, you need to review or redraft your content so as to maintain coherence. You are required to check minute details of your text including the logical flow of your topic or ideas, the genuineness of your evidences and the summary of your topic. On the other hand, in the editing process, you need to proofread your text so as to identify the grammar errors, missing punctuation marks, complex sentences, repetition of words, etc.

•    When you revise your text, you make certain changes like adding new ideas, using more descriptive words, improving the style of idea presented, removing irrelevant details, etc. On the other hand, when you edit your text, you make changes in spelling, grammar, sentence structure and punctuation.

•    Generally, in revision, you need to add, rearrange, remove or replace the details so as to make it more meaningful for the readers. This process must be followed by every writer. In editing, you are required to pay attention to the spelling error, grammar error, punctuation and sentence construction. Editing is a very taxing process, which is usually performed by professionals or season writers.

Editing and revising are very essential processes when it comes to writing something important. By following these two processes, a writer can share the ideas in a clear and concise manner to the audience.

Defining and Non-Defining Relative Clauses

Extra information is added to a sentence by defining a noun using relative clauses. These clauses can be of two different types: defining relative clauses and non- defining relative clauses.

Defining relative clauses are used to give concrete information about what is being said or about whom it is being said. Omitting these clauses either makes the sentence meaningless or gives a completely different meaning. Defining relative clauses often immediately follow the noun they describe. To clarify the above statement observes the two sentences below.

•    They are the people who are buying our Mercedes Benz.
•    Did you buy the painting?

In the first sentence we have the pronoun as “who are buying our Mercedes Benz” and “the people” clarifies who is being referred to. But in the second sentence, it is not clear which painting is being referred to.

In spoken English, we often replace the defining clause who/whom with that. Few pointers with relation to defining relative clauses are as follow:

1.    Don’t use commas while writing defining relative clauses.

2.    The relative pronoun is often left out if it is the object of the verb.

3.    Do not use another personal pronoun in the relative clause if the relative pronoun is the subject of the relative clause.

Now let us understand what is non-defining relative clauses. Non- defining relative clauses though add extra information to the sentence but at the same time if they are omitted also it does not harm the meaning of the sentence. For example, Tom bought the painting done by Picasso, the world famous painter.

In the above sentence the world famous painter refers to the non defining relative clause even if this is omitted the meaning does not change since it is a well known fact that Picasso is world famous for his painting.

Non-defining relative clauses are usually separated by comma. Non defining clauses are mostly used in written English whereas defining clauses are used in spoken English. Mostly pronouns are used to introduce a non defining relative clause.

Importance of Articles in English Grammar

In English grammar, articles play a major role in giving some specific information about the noun they precede. A, an and the are recognized as articles in English language. ‘The’ is known as a definite article that identifies, specifies and describes a noun. It also identifies a specific class or group in the sentence. On the other hand, ‘a’ and ‘an’ are called as indefinite articles, which refer a noun in the general sense. ‘a’ precede noun and start with a consonant or a semivowel, whereas ‘an’ precede noun and start with a phonetic vowel. Both ‘a’ and ‘an’ are also used to state an individual’s profession. Let us understand the articles and its importance in detail.

Articles are small words, which can make a phrase meaningless, if not used correctly. These are used to distinguish things or ideas. Whether a writer or speaker, everyone use articles to refer to nouns. ‘The’ is used to refer to certain nouns, including singular and plural nouns. For example:

•    Please collect the book from the library.
•    Please collect all the books from the library.

Let see the use of ‘a’ and ‘an’, which are usually used to refer to non-specific nouns. For example:

•    Please give me a pen.
•    I am going to an event.

In the above sentences, article ‘a’ is referring to any pen. Similarly, article ‘an’ is referring to any event. In English grammar, articles are broadly categorized into two different types one is the definite article and another is indefinite articles, which are used in writing as well as in conversation in order to refer to a noun or a group of nouns. Here, the articles are discussed in details.

1. Definite article: ‘The’ is a definite article, which is mainly used for uncountable nouns and specific singular nouns and plural nouns. For instance, The wrinkles on my face (The wrinkles are specific and uncountable) or The Leaning Tower of Pisa is one of the seven wonders of the world (Here the leaning tower of Pisa is one such wonder, so it is a specific noun)

2. Indefinite article: ‘An’ and ‘a’ are indefinite articles that are primarily used to introduce unspecified noun. In simple words, these articles point out any person, thing, place or idea. For instance, A rose plant has lots of thorns (Here, rose plant could be any rose plant) or An elephant has a long trunk (Here, the elephant could be any elephant).

What is the Revising Stage in the Writing Process? Give an Example

Writing is a process of conveying thoughts and ideas through alphabets, words, phrases and punctuation. The basic rule of writing is brainstorming ideas. You need to think and research a lot about a topic, which you have planned to write. Searching or thinking about a topic is a first step in a writing process, which is also known as pre-writing stage. Once you select a topic, you must move to the second stage, which is known as drafting stage or writing stage. The third stage of the writing process is revising stage. Revising stage means re-seeing stage where you make changes in order to organize your content. Most writers adopt ARRR (Add, Rearrange, Remove and Replace) approach in the revising stage. While revising, your make sure that your ideas are clearly stated to the target audience. In addition to this, ensure that all the evidences and facts, which you have provided, support your claim.

Revising stage is an essential stage as at this stage you get time to organize your thoughts and ideas in a way that you have planned. Let us understand the revision stage with the help of an example mentioned below:

-    The Ganges river dolphins hunt with the help of ultrasonic sound. They live in freshwater and they are blind. 

The above mentioned statement explains about the hunting behavior of dolphins first and later indicates about their habitat. The way of providing information about the dolphins is not correct. Hence, you have to revise it and make changes in the sequence in a following way:

-    The Ganges river dolphins are blind and they can only live in freshwater. They hunt with the help of ultrasonic sounds.

In this way, you have to organize the information, idea or thought, which you provide to your readers though writing. According to the English language, writing is broadly categorized into 5 stages that are mentioned below:

1.   Pre-writing stage: In this stage, you have to decide first what you are going to write. Many writers first select the topic and then they decide what they will be going to write about the topic.

2.   Drafting: Drafting is the process of planning how you will arrange your thought in a written manner. After selecting a topic, the next step is to start drafting or writing.

3.    Revising: It is the stage where you look at your content through a reader’s eye. Hence, this stage is solely dedicated to reader as you have revise whether your content is written in a correct order.

4.  Editing: Editing involves checking grammar, sentence structure, word choice, punctuation, spelling, citation and capitalization of words and the format of the document.

5.  Publishing: When you write something, you must have written for a group of people. It is important to publish it for public, so that they are able to read your thoughts.

Tips for Writing Paragraph and Explain with Structure

A paragraph is a collection of meaningful sentences, which are arranged in an intangible manner. Through paragraphs, a writer segregates his or her thoughts and ideas in an organized manner. Paragraph writing is the base of all types of essay writing, including narrative essay, persuasive essay, expository essay and descriptive essay. One needs to understand the essential elements of paragraph writing in order to structure a proper paragraph. Let us understand the important elements of paragraph writing.

1. Unity: Start a paragraph with the topic sentence, which will describe the main idea or thought related to the topic. Generally, a paragraph is amalgamated with the supporting sentences that will give detail and discuss about the main idea, theme or thought. Hence, always start a paragraph with a good topic and decide which point will drive the rest of the points.

2. Order: Order is the flow which you maintain while drafting a paragraph. In paragraph writing, make sure you organize everything in a proper sequence. Right from the main idea to supporting sentences, every sentence should express something about the main idea.

3. Coherence: Coherence means the clarity and quality of your content. Make sure that you link all the sentences with each other so as to maintain clarity. It is ideal to use transition word so as to maintain a consistency of the sentences within the paragraph. This will help you in writing meaningful sentences and conveying your ideas clearly to the readers.

4. Completeness: Completeness refers to a well-structured paragraph. If the sentences in the paragraph are able to convey your main idea or thought clearly with the supporting facts, then it will be considered as a complete paragraph.

From aforesaid points, we have understood the main elements of a paragraph. Now, we will see how to structure a paragraph.

1. Topic sentence: When you write something you first select a topic. Hence, while writing a paragraph, your first sentence should be a topic sentence, which will state the main theme or idea. For example, if you are describing about the Siberian Tiger, then it will be like - Siberian tigers are the world’s largest cat.

2. Supporting facts: The supporting facts, arrange the body of the paragraph. The paragraph should contain detailed information, which will support the main topic. For example, you are informing the reader about the tiger population – According to the recent studies, there are approximately 400 to 500 Siberian tigers living in the wild. You can show the data and research studies to your readers.

3. Concluding statement: Concluding statement means closing statement. In this section, restate the main idea. You must summarize the main idea in the conclusion paragraph with all the supporting evidence. For example, wrap your thesis like Siberian tigers are the largest of all wild cats and due to hunting and deforestation, the population has reduced to 500.

It is good to structure meaningful paragraphs as it will allow you to reach your audience and also makes you a good writer. 

Response to Literature Essay Format

Response to literature essay basically denotes a specific type of writing in which the writer first reads the literature and then tries to describe the key points of the literature by giving his own illustrative examples. These examples might have been experienced by him in his day to day life. These responses mostly describe the important message of the literature and also depict the impact the literature has created on the writer. Setting the background, let us move forward to understand what steps should be followed while writing the responses to literature essay. A simple way of remembering the rules of writing the response is “I See Personal Connection” where each capital letter denotes one specific meaning as follows:

I: Introduction to the literature

S: Summary of the Story

P: Establish Personal Connection

C: Conclusion

•    Introductory Paragraph: The most important paragraph where we need to establish the thesis or the statement which we are trying to convey to the readers. The first one or two sentences become the most vital and hence act like a hook which grabs the reader’s attention. A hook can be a universal truth or a meaningful quote from the literature, an analogue, etc. Once the reader is hooked to your story, then try giving a few backgrounds of the literature stating why/where/whom of the literature. Next statement should establish your thesis or point of view. This statement should express what the purpose of your writing is and what can be expected by the readers.

•    Personal Connection Paragraphs: These paragraphs should begin with the topics which provoked you to think and write the article. Make sure these topics establish a connection with the thesis statement you have described in the introductory paragraph. Be expressive in explaining how the article has made a deep impact in your life. Try to give more illustrative examples which the reader gets connected to emotions.

•    Conclusion: Make sure each and every paragraph ends with a statement which re-establishes the fact which you have mentioned in your thesis. Explain the overall main lesson which is learned.

•    One other aspect to remember is the format of writing. Since this is a response to literature essay the response paragraph should be written in first person.No extra-large spaces should be used between the paragraphs.

English Grammar