What is the Concept of Tragedy in Literature?

In literature, tragedy is a form of drama that explains depressing or sad events. Generally, the tragedy based drama is written by an author to draw the attention of readers on the human suffering and sorrowful events. It is a literally work or a work of art that intends to describe the misfortune, terrible events or some kind of disaster, encountered by the protagonist. 

A literary tragedy is a piece of writing that encompasses lively, fearless, courageous, brave and noble characters who face powerful or big hurdles and obstacles externally as well as internally. These characters play a courageous role and epitomized bravery, boldness and dignity when act in a tragedy based drama. In the drama, they act in such a way that shows their bravery and the human spirit at the time danger or death.

Tragedy in literature describes a series of sorrowful events or incidents in the lives of the main characters. The misfortune that happens in their lives makes them weak or ruins their happy lives. According to the English literature, tragedy is divided into six parts that are mentioned below:

1.  Plot: It is an essence of the tragedy based drama. A plot means the arrangement of the events. The plot is categorized into acts and scenes in order to create powerful scenic effects in a natural development.
2.  Character: Characters are the men and women who play the role of hero, heroine and villain. The hero and heroine play a lead role in the drama.
3.  Thought: A thought is communicated with the help of strong dialogues and speeches.
4.  Diction: It is means through which the characters express their feelings, thoughts or suffering to the audience.
5.  Song: A song is embellished with a different kind of artistic element.
6.  Spectacles: Spectacles refer to the theatrical effects presented on the stage. It includes, the scene of human suffering, dances, loud lamentations, colorful attire of the main characters and their appearances.

What is the Effect of Alliteration in Poetry

Alliteration is a literary device, which occurs in a series of words that have similar first consonant sound.  In other words, alliteration is identified when a series of words in a row have the same kind of sounds at the starting of the first letter. For example, She Sells Sea Shells on the Seashore. (Here,‘s’ is the most repeated consonant, so this is an alliterative phrase). The word ‘Alliteration’ originated from the Latin word ‘litera’ meaning ‘letters of the alphabet’. The main purpose of using alliteration in poetry is to draw the attention of the readers through the rhythmic phrase. Besides, it is also used to indicate that the words that have similar consonant sounds are important and convey a valuable message.

Alliteration is not only used in poetry, but also it is used in newspapers to create catchy headlines. Authors often use alliteration in newspapers, stories or poetries to get the attention of the readers. Let us understand the effect of alliteration in poetry.

1.    It creates a rhythm in the poem. By using alliteration, a poet creates a rhythmic sound in the poem. It makes the text more entertaining and appealing.

2.    The significance of using alliterative phrases in the poem is that it helps the listeners and readers to memorize the poetry. The repetition of a consonant sound within a line of the poetry tends to roll off the tongue. This rhythmic word enables a listener to remember the complete poem.

3.    Most of the words in the poem are lyrical, but the use of alliteration involves the listeners and readers completely.

4.    The use of alliteration in the poetry amuses and entertains the child. Many nursery rhymes encompass alliterative phrases that make the kids laugh. For example.

Hickory, dickory, dock,
The mouse ran up the clock,
The clock struck one, 
The  mouse ran down,
Hickory, dickory, dock.

5.    It creates a specific mood of the readers and listeners. The alliterative effect in the poetry often captures the attention of kids as well as adults. Besides, the alliterative words like ‘The Muffin Man’’, ‘Dull as Dirt’’, ‘’Tiny Tots’’, “Jack and Jill’ and ‘Incy Wincy Spider’, etc. create a comical effect and are widely used for advertisements.

Difference between a Simile and a Metaphor

Simile and metaphor both are extensively used in literary works. These are used to make comparison or to explain a concept. It is little tricky to understand the use of simile and metaphor. Both are poetic device and commonly used in English language to embellish the text. Let us see the difference between a simile and a metaphor.


A simile is a metaphor, but not all metaphors are recognized as the simile. It is a type of metaphor in which the comparisons is made with the help of some specific words such as ‘like’ or ‘as’.

For example:

•    Her cheeks are red like a rose.
•    She is busy as bee.
•    He is as tall as a giraffe.
•    They fought like cat and dog.
•    Her voice is as sweet as sugar.

1.    A simile is a figure of speech that is used to compare two different things so as to create a new meaning. It is more poetic than metaphor.
2.    A simile represents to be like something or someone. In simple words, a thing cannot be substituted for the other thing completely.
3.    A simile always uses the words ‘like’ and ‘as’.


A metaphor is a literary device, which directly states a comparison. In other words, it made the comparison between the subjects that are unrelated.

For example:

•    My life is an open book.
•    She is the apple of my eye.
•    The wheels of justice turn slowly.
•    I was lost in a sea of nameless faces.
•    Words are the weapons with which we wound.

1.    A metaphor is a figure of speech and it compares two things without using ‘like’ or ‘as’.
2.    A metaphor is a substitution or an equation, whereas a simile is an approximation.
3.    A metaphor usually uses word like ‘is’, ‘are’, ‘was’ or ‘were’.

Difference between Demonstrative Pronoun and Demonstrative Adjective

Demonstrative pronoun and demonstrative adjective both sound identical and both modify the noun, but in a different way. The main difference between a demonstrative pronoun and a demonstrative adjective is that a demonstrative pronoun can stand alone, whereas a demonstrative adjective is followed by the noun. Let us understand the demonstrative pronoun and adjective in detail.

Demonstrative Pronoun

A demonstrative pronoun is a pronoun that represents something, which is already mentioned. It is used to indicate something important in a sentence. These types of pronouns can be either plural or singular that points out items in distance or time. Suppose a thing or many things are represented in a sentence, so the demonstrative pronoun will be either far or near in distance or time. For near in distance or time – words like ‘this’ or ‘these’ will be used and for far in distance or time – words like ‘that’ or ‘those’ will be used.

•    A demonstrative pronoun will always identify a noun. It is used in place of a noun.
•    A demonstrative pronoun is primarily used to explain a thing, place or an animal. Besides, it is also used to describe a person who is identified.


•    This is my house. (Singular)
•    Could you give me that? (Singular)
•    These are my favorites. (Plural)
•    Those belong to Cathy. (Plural)

A demonstrative adjective is an adjective that is used to identify or demonstrate specific things, animals or people. The adjectives that modify nouns are ‘this’, ‘that’, ‘those’ and ‘these’. These words come before the nouns in the sentence. Like demonstrative pronoun, the demonstrative adjective also uses ‘this’ and ‘that’ for singular nouns and ‘these’ and ‘those’ for plural nouns.

•    A demonstrative adjective is useful when you want to make it clear which noun (place, person or thing) you would like to describe.
•    A demonstrative adjective identify the words omitted in a sentence or highlight their importance.


This is the best gift of my life. (Singular)
That dress is so classy. (Singular)
Those earrings suit me very well. (Plural)
These books contain interesting stories. (Plural)

From above mentioned points, it is proved that demonstrative pronouns and demonstrative adjectives use the same words (this, that, those, these) to modify nouns. However, the difference between these two is that demonstrative pronouns come before a verb or these stand alone. On the other hand, demonstrative adjectives always appear before a noun.

What is a Hyperbole in Literary Terms? and its Functions

Hyperbole is a figure of speech, which means over-statement or over- exaggeration. It is derived from the Greek word and mainly used to emphasize a specific piece of information, feeling and any other statement. Besides, it is also used to create humor so as to get the attention of the listeners. Hyperbole is a rhetorical device and sometimes called as auxesis. Many writers or speakers use hyperbole in poetry and oratory in order to create an impression or emphasize their words or to instill strong feelings.

Hyperbole is used in the literature for exaggeration, but it is not meant to be taken literary or exactly. In simple words, the literal interpretation of hyperbole cannot be true, but the exaggeration technique successfully expresses a certain point, which a speaker has intended to convey. For instance, ‘Sherry runs faster than the winds’ (Here, according to the speaker’s point of view, Sherry’s speed is very fast, but it was not said in a literal tone). The speaker has used a hyperbole to describe Sherry’s running pace.

Hyperbole is a metaphorical term, which creates a humorous effect and makes the text amusing and entertaining. Hyperbole can be used in different forms such as excitement, pain, humor, etc. Based on the context, an author uses hyperbole to express his intention, opinion or viewpoint. Let us see the functions of hyperbole in detail.

Functions of Hyperbole

•    Hyperbole is a literary technique, which is used intentionally to exaggerate something and to create certain effects.

•    Hyperbole is used in prose to create humor or to emphasize something. It can be used in a story to empathize a famous feature of character or a particular action or feeling.

•    In literature, hyperbole depends on imagery, which is a visual description. Through hyperbole, an author creates a humorous effect. For example, ‘I am so hungry that I could eat a horse’ or ‘I went home and made the biggest sandwich of all time’.

•    Hyperbole is widely used in poetry. It is also used to emphasize opposing ideas or statements.

Why Should You Avoid Using Cliches in Your Writing

Cliches are the words and phrases that have been overused in writing. These are often used by the writers to make their content more appealing. Somehow, the cliches have lost their value and effectiveness in the writing. They are no longer interesting. Being a writer, it is ideal to avoid using cliches when you are writing something fresh and important. The overuse of cliches not only makes a sentence boring, but also it sounds meaningless. Neither they convey anything important message nor do they add value to the content.  Here, some useful tips are discussed that will help you understand why you should avoid using cliches in your writing.

•    The texts that are full of cliches create an impression in the readers’ mind that either the writer is not creative or he or she is very lazy to pen down his or her own thoughts and idea. With an overuse of cliches, a writer suppresses his or her creativity.
•    If you really want to maintain freshness and coherence in your writing, you must avoid adding cliches. To make your writing interesting, you can rephrase your ideas. Apart from this, ask your friend to proofread your piece of writing so as to avoid cliches and other padding words and phrases.
•    Cliches are mostly used in a specific type of writing such as journalism. However, when you are writing in a formal way, then it is better to avoid cliches as they are not always clear.

A good writer should avoid following cliches:

•    Think outside the box
•    At the end of the day
•    The fact of the matter
•    Fit for purpose
•    In any way
•    When all said and done
•    In this day and age
•    Avoid something like a plague
•    At this moment in time
•    In a nutshell
•    All walk of life
•    At the end of the day
•    Too little, too late
•    Sleeping like dead
•    Never say never
•    Actions speak louder than words
•    Laughter is the best medicine
•    As bold as brass
•    Going forward
•    Two wrongs don’t make a right

Importance and Effect of Assonance in Poetry

Assonance refers to pairing or matching of vowel sounds. It is a counterpart of alliteration. Alliteration is identified by the repetition of a consonant sound within the line of poetry, whereas assonance is determined by the repetition of a vowel sound within the line of poetry. Assonance occurs when two or more words close to one another repeat the similar vowel sound but begin with the different consonant sounds.

For example:

•    I feel restless and depressed.
•    The rain in spain falls mainly in the plains.
•    Fleet feet sweep by sleeping geeks.
•    Slow the low gradual moan came in the snowing.
•    If I bleat when I speak it‘s because I just got fleeced.
•    Merry went here and there and everywhere. 
•    On a proud rounding cloud.

Effect and importance of assonance in poetry

•    In poetry, assonance plays a significant role in creating a musical tone in the text.
•    It helps certain types of words to stand out.
•    It maintains a correct text flow.
•    Assonance adds internal rhyme and makes the sound of a poem rhythmic.
•    It is also used to give ‘hint’ for literary symbolism.
•    The assonance is used in poems to indicate important words, usually nouns.
•    It creates line between two ideas.
•    It also used by many poets to create a ‘bright sounding’ lines.
•    It is primarily ideal for the poems that are meant for reading purpose or for performance type poetry.
•    It relates to ideas that are visually expressed.
•    With right vowel sounds, the lines of a poem become more musical to the listener’s ear. Hence, it sets the mood of the reader or listener through long or high vowel sounds.
•    In the poetry, assonance has a subtler effect as compared to alliteration.

What are the Functions of Adverbial Clause

Dependent clauses which act as an adverb are called adverbial clauses. Similar to other clauses, these clauses either modify a verb or an adjective or an adverb. Adverbs perform basically eight different types of functions which are as follows:

1. Adverb Phrase Head: This type of phrases consists of an adverb and some modifiers. Few examples of adverb phrase head are, however, quietly, quickly, etc.

2.  As Adjective Phrase Modifier: These phrases either modify an adjective or describe an adjective. 

For example:
•    Habitually late comers will not be allowed in the class.
•    Your newborn baby son is very thin.

3. As Adverb Phrase Modifier: These phrases or words either describe or modify an adverb phrase.  

For example:
•    The noise from the next door is extremely loud.
•    President’s actions are almost always perfect.

4. As Prepositional Phrase Modifier:  A prepositional phrase modifier modifies or describes a prepositional phrase. 

For example:
•    His diagrams are not very much like the original.
•    You seem rather driving under the influence of alcohol.

5.  As Adjunct Adverbials:  Adjunct adverbials are the words or phrases which modify or describe an entire clause by providing extra information like time, purpose, place, condition. 

For example:
•    The construction company had to demolish the old museum on the prime location so that an upscale apartment can be made.
•    You will definitely regret in future if you do not take precautionary measures now.

6.  As Disjunct Adverbials: Disjunct adverbial is a word which provides additional information to make the sentence more meaningful. This basically gives an insight of the attitude or tone of the person speaking. 

For example:
•    Surprisingly, none of the students qualified the entrance test.
•    Honestly, I have no idea of what you are saying.

7.  As Conjunct Adverbials: These phrases or words link two or more clauses trying to derive a textual relationship between them. 

For example:
•    Peter accepted the decision even if it meant he will lose his job.
•    Except for high blood sugar, I am hale and hearty.

Using Coordinating Conjunctions to Combine Sentences

A coordinating conjunction joins words, phrases and a set of words in a sentence. It joins similar types of words or phrases. In other words, coordinating conjunction connects similar elements such as two nouns, two independent clauses, two verbs or two modifiers. In English grammar, coordinating conjunctions are, and, or, for, so, but, yet, nor. A simple way to memorize the coordinating conjunctions is to remember the word FANBOYS. F is for, A is And, N is Nor, B is But, O is Or, Y is Yet and S is So.

Things to remember

•    Usually, when two independent clauses are connected through coordinating conjunction, a comma should be used before the coordinating conjunction. For example, she wants to perform on stage, but she is very shy.

•    Coordinating conjunctions come between the words or phrases, which they are joining. For example, John likes singing and dancing.

•    Do not add a comma, when using the coordinating conjunction to join two items. For example, He likes pizza and donut.

•    The comma before the coordinating conjunction is optional when it is used with a list of items (three or more) in a sentence.  For instance, she has purchased fruits, vegetables, pastry, milk, bread and butter.

•    If a sentence starts with a coordinating conjunction, then it is not followed by a comma.

Coordinating conjunction shows that the elements that they connect are equally important. Let us see some example sentences using coordinating conjunctions.

1.    She wore a long jacket, for it was cold outside.
2.    Suzan bought her mom a handbag, and her mother loved it.
3.    He does not like butter, nor does he eat cheese.
4.    I want to buy a car, but I do not have enough money.
5.    You can cook your food, or you can order from a restaurant.
6.    I had a cavity in my tooth, yet I ate chocolate yesterday.
7.    Harry was hungry, so he ate pizza.

Difference between Demonstrative and Relative Pronoun

Demonstrative pronoun points to a person or subject which is at a distance from you and you would highlight the distance between you by saying so. For example, let’s say you and one of your classmates is sitting on a coffee table and you see that there is another person sitting at one corner of the cafe and you recognize him. So you would introduce to your friend as “that guy at the corner used to be my batch mate during my school days”. Now when you walk up to the guy and introduce your friend you would say “This guy is my best buddy”.  These kinds of pronouns imply a special stress in spoken English. Demonstrative pronoun may sound like a demonstrative adjective but is used differently in the sentence. It acts as a pronoun taking the place of a noun.

Relative pronouns are used in complex sentences where it introduces a subordinate clause. In such cases you do not show the distance between you and another person or object rather you point to subject of the action. In simple words that is used to combine two different sentences into a single sentence. Let us consider the two sentences mentioned below:

•    I was preparing for the civil service examination.

•    I cleared the civil service examination.

Now using the relative pronoun that we can combine the above two sentences as follows:

•    I was preparing for the civil service examination that helped me clearing the civil service examination.

Relative pronoun provides more information to the sentence when used after the noun. The expanded form of relative pronouns is called as indefinite relative pronouns. For example, consider the below sentences:

•    He did whatever he thought was correct.

•    Whomever the boss thinks is sincere, will get awarded by him.

What are Correlative Conjunctions and its Usage

A conjunction is a part of speech. It is categorized into different types such as coordinating conjunction, subordinating conjunction and correlative conjunction. Correlative conjunctions are paired conjunctions that always work in a pair to connect words, phrases and clauses. The correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs. Both the conjunction words are used in different places in a sentence. Some of the correlative conjunctions are mentioned below:

•    Not only- but also
•    Neither – nor
•    Either – or
•    Both – and
•    Not – but 
•    Whether – or
•    As – as
•    As many – as
•    Rather – than
•    No sooner – than
•    Such – that
•    Between – and
•    Hardly – when
•    From – to
•    Scarcely - when

Correlative conjunctions are quite similar to coordinating conjunctions. These conjunctions join words or phrases that have equal importance and structure. Let us understand the correlative conjunctions and it's usage in sentences.

1.    James eats not only pizza, but also burrito.
2.    Neither Ema nor Sherry has appeared for the test. 
3.    I want either a laptop or a tab.
4.    Both English and Spanish are spoken in America.
5.    There are not five, but ten types of mangoes are available in the market.
6.    Whether you qualify the test or not depends on your scores.
7.    If your work is as important as mine, then you should give more priority to your work.
8.    There are as many computers as there are students.
9.    He was playing games on the computer rather than completing his homework.
10.    No sooner had I arrived at the airport than the flight landed.
11.    She is such a cunning lady that she never helps her neighbours.
12.    The show will start between 6 p.m. and 7 p.m.
13.    Hardly had I closed the door, when my friend came to the house.
14.    The news will be telecast from 9 p.m. to 10 p.m.
15.    Linda had scarcely reached the office when the meeting started.

English Grammar