Citation in English & Why it is Important?

A citation is a short note, which helps a reader in identifying the actual source. Sometimes, writers give important information in their article, blog or story, which is taken from another source like newspaper, magazine, film, novels, journal, book, etc. After providing the information, they write a short note mentioning the source from where the information is collected and that short note is known as a citation. It is either mentioned within the text, at the bottom of the page or at the end of the page.

A citation is considered both an acknowledgement as well as a signpost.  It is an acknowledgement as it reveals that you are grateful to that source. Besides, it is also called a signpost as it indicates the location of your source. Most writers use different formats to cite the real source. Some writers cite the source within the text and many writers mention it at the end of the page. The citation is provided to keep readers informed about whose ideas or thoughts you are using in your text.

Why Citation is Important

•    Citation is extremely important when you use someone else’s ideas or thoughts to validate your point. You will use someone’s information as an evidence to support your text. Through citation, you inform your readers that specific information is used in your piece of writing. The information can be taken from a book, newspaper, novel, journal, magazine or article.

•    Citing a source is essential as the idea of academia is a like a currency. The academia earns the currency by sharing knowledge and information to the world. Hence, through citation, the writer acknowledges their contribution and honors those who have created the ideas and thoughts. 

•    If you use someone else idea without acknowledging his or her work, you violate that person’s right. It will be considered like you have stolen someone else’s idea or information without giving him credit eventually you will lose your readers trust.

Rules for Colons and Semicolons

Colon & Semicolon

Colon is a punctuation mark which means "what is to be said" & "here is what i meant". Represented as ":" placed vertically. Semicolon is also a punctuation mark, which is used to divide major sentence elements. Represented as ";" and placed vertically.

What is Colon?

Colon refers to a punctuation mark, which is represented through two equal sized dots (:) placed on the same vertical line. The meaning of colon is “that is to say” and “here’s what I mean”. Generally, a colon is used to describe or begin an enumeration. Besides this, a colon is also used with titles and subtitles of books, salutation of business letter, formal letters, hours and minutes, ratios, etc. In simple words, a colon is used to introduce readers about the series of items, to draw attention to something, to present an explanation and it also joins ideas together.

Rules for Using a Colon

1.    Use a colon to introduce or explain a list of items. Make sure that you do not capitalize the first item after the colon (unless it is a proper noun)
2.    Use a colon to introduce a long quotation.
3.    Use a colon when giving an example or explanation.
4.    Do not use colon before a list.
5.    Use a colon to join sentences.
6.    Use a colon express time or use it in titles.
7.    Instead of the comma, use a colon to follow the salutation in a business letter. Use it when addressing someone by his or her first name.

What is Semicolon?

A semicolon is a punctuation mark, which divides major sentence elements. It is represented through one dot and one comma centered on the same vertical line (;). Like comma, semicolon shows an audible pause, which is longer than a comma, but short of a period’s full stop. A semicolon is used between two related independent clauses, which are not joined by a coordinating conjunction. In addition this, semicolons are sometimes used in place of commas to separate items in a list, specifically when the elements of the list contain commas.

Rules for Using a Semicolon

1.    A semicolon is used to link two complete sentences.
2.    It is used with words like however, therefore, namely, that is, for instance, for example, etc. Comma is also used with these words and terms.
3.    It is also used to clarify a list of items and when the items already contain commas.
4.    It can also be used between independent clauses that are linked by a connector including, but, or, and, nor, etc.

Dramatic Monologue & Examples

Dramatic monologue refers to a kind of poetry that is written in the form of speech of an individual character. In simple words, it is a long passage or an extract in a play, story or poem that tells a character’s thoughts and feelings. Dramatic monologue is basically a poem, which is written in a speech form and delivered by a single person. The poet describes vivid scenes by keeping in mind the character. Dramatic monologue is also known as persona poem. In this type of poem, the poet explains everything through an assumed voice of a character or a fictional identity. There is no dialogue in the poem. The dramatic monologues are the means of conveying the views of a character and giving the audience a better clarity about a character’s feeling. These are also used in novels to narrate stories.

Robert Browning was the popular English poet. He was considered the master of the dramatic monologue. His dramatic monologues depicted the most important use of the form of postromantic poetry.  Nowadays, the dramatic monologue is considered a lyric poem in which the poet addresses a silent listener by revealing himself as well as the dramatic situation.

The dramatic monologue is written when a character encounters an extreme crisis or a specific situation. The poet conveys the immense feeling or desire of the character through a dramatic monologue. The dramatic monologue can be written in poetic form, theatrical form or film form.

Examples of Dramatic Monologue: 

Generally, in a dramatic monologue, a speaker, who is other than the author, delivers a speech to a silent auditor or listener in a particular situation or at a critical moment. Some examples of dramatic monologue are mentioned below:

•    “My Last Duchess” by Robert Browning
•    “Someday Special” by Emidifi Defi 
•    “Pink Lace” by Poet Destroyer A
•    “When A Man Cries” by Maurice Yvonne
•    “To Bloom in Red Flame” by Eileen Manassian
•    “Going Home” by Verlena S. Walker
•    “A Cricket’s World” by Christine Phillips
•    “100 Years From Now” by Tammy Reams
•    “ To An Angel” by Ifedayo Mayowa
•    “Anxiety I Blame You” by Dennis Baze
•    “Bring it Down” by Eileen Manassian
•    “My Loss” by Alicia Koch

Transition Words and Phrases

Transition words and phrases are mainly used to connect an idea to another. These words and phrases allow readers to progress from one idea to another. In other words, transition words and phrases link a sentence or a paragraph to the next sentence or paragraph so as to make it understandable and meaningful for the readers. With the help of these words and phrases, the author communicates the ideas and thoughts clearly to the readers. The transitions describe the relationship between paragraphs or sentences and allow a reader to flow smoothly from one paragraph to another. The role of transition words and phrases is to build a connection between corresponding paragraphs or sentences so as to make the entire piece of writing legible.

The list of transition words and phrases are mentioned below:

  1. Addition - Moreover, finally, furthermore, besides, in addition, again, first, too, lastly, even more, also, secondly, next, etc.
  2. Comparison - Similarly, likewise, in the same way, in like manner, etc.
  3. Contrast - However, otherwise, though, yet, nevertheless, but, on the contrary, on the other hand, at the same time, notwithstanding, after all, etc.
  4. Time - Afterwards, while, next, sometimes, always, once, simultaneously, when, during, so far, then, in the meantime, now, subsequently, soon, following, immediately, whenever, etc.
  5. Exemplification or illustration - For example, for instance, specifically, to demonstrate, to illustrate, etc.

  • Place - Nearby, beyond, above, below, wherever, here, there, opposite to, adjacent to, etc.
  • Cause - Because, for that reason, since, on account of, etc.
  • Effect - Consequently, thus, hence, as a result, therefore, accordingly, etc.
  • Clarification - To explain, to clarify, in other words, to rephrase it, etc.
  • Purpose - So that, in order that, for this purpose, to that end, etc.
  • Qualification - Although, frequently, probably, nearly, maybe, never, perhaps, almost, etc.
  • Intensification - Undoubtedly, surely, indeed, in fact, by all means, certainly, in fact, yes, no, etc.
  • Concession - Of course, to be sure, granted, etc.
  • Summary - In brief, to summarize, in short, in summary, to sum up, etc.
  • Conclusion - Finally, to conclude, in conclusion, etc.
  • Demonstratives as transitions - These, this, those and that.
Transitional words and phrases capture the attention of readers by building a connection between ideas or paragraphs. These words have different meanings, connotations and tone. Hence, the words and phrases are used logically to connect a specific paragraph to another paragraph.

What are Tenses? With Types & Examples

A tense is a verb form that indicates the time of an action. It is categorized into three different forms such as present tense, past tense and future tense. Let us understand all the tenses in detail.

Types of Tenses

1. Present Tense: The present tense explains a current event or state of being. Apart from this, the present tense sometimes explains past and future events. For instance, ‘the party ends at 9.00 o’clock’ (future event). The present tense is further divided into following types:

i. Simple Present Tense:  It is used to explain facts and habits and scheduled events in the future. Besides, it is also used to narrate stories so as to engage readers in the story.


•    I like cake and cookies.
•    The sun rises in the east.

ii. Present Progressive or Present Continuous Tense: The present progressive tense is used to describe an act, which is going on at the time of speaking.


•    I am watching my favorite TV show.
•    Tom is having his dinner now.

iii. Present Perfect Tense: It describes an event happened in the past and still continuing into the present.


•    I have always wished to do Paragliding.
•    I have been exercising regularly to lose my weight.

iv.  Present Perfect Continuous or Present Perfect Progressive Tense: It is used for a situation that has happened in the past and continuous until the moment. Besides, it is also used for situation occurred in the past, but has now finished.


•    Emma has been relying on salary increment to pay her study loan.
•    We haven’t been talking with John since Thursday.

2. Past Tense: The past tense expresses an event happened in the past or a state of being. For example, ‘I went to the temple’. The past tense is broadly categorized into following types:

i. Simple Past Tense: The simple past tense is used to describe an action of the past. In the past tense, the verb ends with an ‘ed’.


•    We went out for dinner last night.
•    Robin worked in the old office for almost 9 years.

ii. Past Continuous Tense or Past Progressive Tense: It narrates the on-going activity in the past. These sentences are written with the help of an auxiliary verb.


•    We were playing volleyball when it started to rain.
•    I was studying at 12.00 p.m. yesterday.

iii.  Past Perfect Tense: It is used to indicate an action that was completed before another took place.


•    We didn’t get the movie ticket because we had not booked in advance.
•    I had never seen such a magnificent monument before.

iv. Past Perfect Continuous Tense: The past perfect continuous tense is used to describe an on-going action, which was ended in the past. These sentences are formed with the help of modal 'had' + 'been' + the present participle of the verb (-ing).


•    I had been going.
•    I had been playing the chess all morning.

3. Future Tense: The future tense describes a future event or a future of being. For instance, ‘I will buy a car next year’. The future tense is divided into following types:

i. Simple Future Tense: The simple future tense refers to an action, which will happen in the future.


•    I will keep in touch with you.
•    Sara will stay with us for 5 days.

ii. Future Continuous Tense: The future continuous tense is used to describe an on-going action, which will happen in the future.


•    I will be going to the gym soon.
•    I will be watching the football match next month.

iii. Future Perfect Tense: It is used to describe an action, which is expected to be completed within a certain span of time in the future. These sentences are framed by 'will' + 'have' + 'past participle of the verb'.


•    By the time you reach, we will have finished our dinner. 
•    Sasha will have gone by the time you reach there by car.

iv. Future Perfect Continuous Tense: This tense is used for an on-going action, which will be completed at some stipulated time in the future. The sentences are framed using the modal 'will/shall' + 'have' + 'been' + 'the past participle of the verb (-ing)'.


•    I will have been singing for 1 hours by the time you arrive here.
•    Next Monday, I will have been working on the topmost project for two years.

Sentences and Fragments

Sentence fragments are collection of words, which looks like small sentences. In other words, sentence fragments are incomplete or unfinished sentences, which are disconnected from the main clause.  A main clause refers to a group of words, which contain a subject and a predicate and can stand on its own. In order to make a sentence, a collection of words should have at least one independent clause or main clause.

Sentence fragments have dependent clause or phrase instead of the independent clause. Generally, fragments start with a capital letter and end with a full stop and act like real sentences. The sentence fragments do not express a complete thought as these are pieces of sentences.

For example:

•    Over there
•    On the table
•    Since you asked
•    After the rain stops
•    Because his bike was in the shop
•    If I walk home

The aforesaid sentences are fragments as these sentences do not express a complete thought or idea.  Let us see some examples of complete sentences that are created with the help of sentence fragments:

•    The boy standing over there is Tom.
•    My book is on the table.
•    Since you asked, I am going to London tomorrow.
•    He went home after the rain stopped.
•    George took the cab because his bike was in the shop.
•    If I walk home at night I will call you.

Sentence fragments lack in a subject or a verb or both therefore these are known as incomplete sentences. The dependent clauses are the most confusing fragments as these sentences have a subject and a verb so they look like complete sentences. However, these sentences do not express a complete thought. The sentences cannot stand alone and need more information to complete an idea or thought. If a sentence fragment contains a subject and a verb and it expresses a thought then it will be a complete sentence.

Parts of Speech With Types and Examples

In English language, a word is recognized as the smallest element. Each word has different meaning and used in a certain manner. Keeping in mind the usage and functions of a group of words, these are divided into different forms, which are also known as part of speech. There are eight main parts of speech in English grammar which includes noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, interjection and conjunction.  Let us understand the parts of speech in detail.

1. Noun: A noun is the most common part of speech. It refers to the group of words that are used to name a person, place, thing, animal or an idea. In other words, a noun helps in identifying anything that we can see, hear, smell, think and taste. A noun can be categorized into concrete and abstract forms. A concrete noun can be directly experienced with the help of the senses. For example, water, human, park, bus, etc. An abstract noun represents emotions and other intangible experiences such as patriotism, hate and love.

For example:

  • My friend is traveling to Berlin next month.
  • Children like to go to the park.

2. Pronoun: A pronoun refers to a word which is used in place of a noun. In other words, a pronoun acts as a replacement of a noun in a sentence. Instead of repeating names of a person or a thing in a sentence, we can use pronouns like he, she, her, his, their, our, I, it, mine, etc.

For example:

  • The largest piece of the cake is mine.
  • Mrs. Jennifer taught English and she is my favorite teacher.

3. Adjective: An adjective is an important part of a speech as it describes or modifies a noun or a pronoun in a certain way. An adjective indicates the quality, color, size, shape and the number of nouns or pronouns in a sentence.

For example:

  • I got five doughnuts free from Dunkin' Donuts.
  • My mother has prepared dark chocolate brown cake for my sister’s birthday.

4. Verb: A verb is the significant part of a speech. A sentence would not be complete without a verb. In a sentence, a verb explains what a noun is doing or experiencing. It shows an action (physical or mental) in a sentence or state of being of the subject in a sentence.

For example:

  • The cake will bake in 15 minutes.
  • They are always ready to help in times of trouble. (The verb ‘are’ refers to the state of being of the pronoun ‘they’ that is the subject in the sentence)

5. Adverb: Like adjectives, adverbs are also used to describe words specifically adjectives, verbs and other adverbs. It does not modify nouns or pronouns.

For example:

  • He completely understands her problem.
  • I so want that new dress.

6. Preposition: Preposition is a part of speech and it refers to the words that introduce information to readers. It describes a location or a location in time. In other words, it informs about when, where and why something takes place.

For example:

  • We will meet at 5 o’clock.
  • The extra pillows are in the box under the bed.

7.  Conjunction: Conjunction refers to a group of words that connects phrases, words and clauses together. The conjunction words are but, for, nor, or, so, yet, etc. 

For example:

  • You can eat the omelet with a spoon or fork.  
  • I am vegetarian, so I don’t eat meat. 

8. Interjection: Interjections are represented by an exclamation mark. This part of speech expresses strong emotions in a sentence.

For example:

  • Hurray, I passed the test.
  • Wow! that’s a fantastic news. 
These are the important parts of speech which are used while writing and talking. Keep checking my blogs i am going to write more.

English Grammar