Essay Writing Skills

Writing is a good way of sharing your ideas. Essay writing is a key skill, which allows an individual to express his or her thoughts and views freely to others. Several schools and colleges evaluate the writing skills of students through essay writing. They even determine the original thinking ability and literary skills of students with the help of their writing skills. Many students possess inbuilt literary skills, which enable them to express their thoughts in a concise manner, whereas some students struggle a lot with essay writing. Here, some important steps are discussed, which will help you in improving your essay writing skills.

• Select a Topic: A good topic makes a good essay. Search for a topic that interests you the most or relevant to you. Write about the topic, which you can explain well. It is ideal to choose a fresh topic that will stimulate the interest of the readers.

• Read Books and Newspapers: Writing skills can be developed through reading. The more you will read articles and stories; the better will be your thinking ability as well as writing skill. Read the stories and articles, written by famous writers and learn the art of writing. With regular reading of books and newspapers, you will be able learn to express your thoughts and views in a clear and concise manner.

Provide Sufficient Evidences: You can convince your readers in your writing with the help of proper evidences and proofs. The proofs and evidences help you in justifying your point or argument that you had discussed in your essay.

•  Improve Vocabulary Skills: With good vocabulary skills, you can maintain a correct tone and flow in your essay. Express your views and thoughts in a step-by-step manner and persuade the readers with the help of proper facts and evidences.

• Focus on Introductory and Closing Paragraph: When writing an essay, make sure that the introduction paragraph should state the main idea or topic. Besides, the closing paragraph should summarize the entire topic with the help of supporting facts.

Difference between Formal and Informal Letters

Letter writing is one of the modes of communication. A letter is written to communicate something important or to mark a special occasion. Sometimes, a letter is written to draw attention of the concerned authority towards an issue or to congratulate someone on his or her special day like marriage, birthday or naming ceremony of a new born baby. Letter writing is broadly categorized into two different forms one is the formal letter writing and another is informal letter writing. A formal letter is written to those whom we do not know on a personal level, such as professional head or business head. However, an informal letter is written to near and dear ones like friends, cousins or relatives. Let us understand the difference between formal and informal letters in detail.

Formal Letter versus Informal Letter 

•    In formal letters, official communication is done in a professional manner. On the other hand, informal letters are written in a causal manner.

•    Formal letters are written for various purposes. For instance, to ask for some specific information, to apply for a job, to request for leave, to make a complaint or to send an apology, etc. On the other hand, informal letters are mainly written to friends and family for sharing joys and sorrow, asking about their whereabouts or expressing emotions.

•    Formal letters are written in a clear and concise manner. In formal writing, the language is short, simple and to the point, whereas informal letters are written like a spoken conversation as these are addressed to near and dear ones. Longer sentences are normally used in informal letter writing.

•    In a formal letter and an informal letter, the address of the sender is usually written on the top right hand side of the page. However, the salutation starts with the title or surname of the recipient in a formal letter. On the other hand, salutation always begins with the recipient’s name in an informal letter.  

•    In a formal letter, the main paragraph includes the exact purpose of writing, for instance, to make a complaint, to enquire or to request something. In an informal letter, the sender asks the whereabouts of his or her friend or family.

•    In a formal letter, sender’s expectation in terms of promises or actions is usually mentioned in the last paragraph. However, in an informal letter, a sender sign off by conveying best regards to his or her near and dear ones.

Advantages of Learning English Grammar

All languages have their set of rules that helps in constructing meaningful sentences. In this way, English grammar is a kind of rule that governs the linguistic behavior of people. It is an essential aspect of the English language. With a sound knowledge of English grammar, an individual can speak and write the language correctly.  Grammar includes syntax, morphology, phonology, which is usually complemented by semantics, phonetics and pragmatics.

It has been seen that people are generally judged by others based on their communication skills. If an individual is not able to speak properly, then he or she is considered an uneducated or illiterate person. Nowadays, speaking English language is a matter of pride. The person who speaks and writes grammatically correct language is respected and admired by his or her peers. Hence, a thorough knowledge of grammar is important for everyone. Let us understand the benefits of learning English grammar in detail.

•    A person can express his or her thoughts and ideas clearly to others with the help of proper grammar knowledge.

•    A good English grammar skill opens doors for dynamic avenues for an individual. It may allow a person to build professional connection with people from other countries.

•    A person can easily comprehend the contents of important documents with the help of good grammar skills. In simple words, they can improve their text interpretation abilities.

•    Students are able to qualify their college and university entrance exams if their grammar is good. Many colleges and universities evaluate the language skills of students through exams. Hence, students who have sound knowledge of grammar can easily score well in the exam.

•    With good grammar knowledge, students can become analytical and receptive readers.

•    Last but not the least; if a person has a strong grammar skills, then he or she can articulate the words properly and can speak English language flawlessly. Consequently, the person will be considered more mature and professional.

What are Appositives with Examples?

Appositives refer to nouns, noun phrases or noun clauses, which are placed next to another noun to rename it or to identify it. The word ‘appositive’ comes from the Latin word, which means ‘placing close by’. Generally, appositives appear right after the word or phrase that it renames. This literary device is usually used in a sentence with comma. In other words, an appositive can be defined as a noun or noun phrase, which explains another noun, which it follows.

Types of Appositive

An appositive can be categorized into two different types:

1. Restrictive Appositive: It provides important information to rename or identify the phrase or noun in apposition. The use of restrictive appositive makes a phrase meaningful and if it is removed, the entire sentence will be meaningless. In this type of appositive, commas are not essentially used. For example, ‘Laura’s friend, Daisy, like cake and pastry’. (Here, the statement restricted to only Daisy, who is one of the friends of Laura).

2. Non-Restrictive Appositive: It provides additional and non-essential information that is not significant to rename or identify the phrase or noun in apposition. Generally, commas are used in this type of appositive. For example, ‘Ruby, my friend, likes to eat cake and pastry’. (Here, my friend refers to non-restrictive appositive that is not important to be used for identifying Ruby)

Example of Appositive Sentences:

1. My neighbor, John bought a new car. (Here, John renames neighbor)
2. Christina’s dog Ginger is a Dalmatian. (Here, Ginger renames dog)
3. The girl who designed this dress is named Sara. (Here, who designed this dress renames girl)
4. Your best friend, Eric has participated in football match. (Here, Eric renames best friend)
5. Michelle’s new suit, a blue flannel one, makes him look much older. (Here, a blue flannel one renames the new suit)

Appositive in between the sentences are underlined: 

1. When I was in trouble, my good friend, Sasha stood by me.
2. Oslo, the capital of Norway, is a wonderful place.
3. Mr. Harry, who is a professional magician, performed at my sister’s birthday party.
4. Ms. Linda, my math teacher, punished me for not doing an assignment.
5. My husband, who is a software engineer, has to work at night shifts also.

Direct and Indirect Speech Rules with Examples

Direct speech and indirect speech are the ways of conveying the words spoken by someone. In a direct speech, the words spoken by someone are repeated or quoted. However, in an indirect speech, the words spoken by someone are reported or conveyed by changing the tense. Let us understand the direct and indirect speech in detail.

Direct Speech

When we repeat or quote the exact words spoken by someone is known as a direct speech. In a direct speech, the words spoken by someone are placed between quotation mark (“ “) without making any changes.  We quote the exact words that are being said at the moment. For instance, an important announcement or a telephone conversation.

Indirect Speech

When we report the words spoken by someone and without quoting or repeating it is called as an indirect speech. In an indirect speech, the tense of the words spoken are being changed and inverted commas are not used. We use reporting verbs like ‘tell’, ‘say’ or ‘ask’ and the word ‘that’ to express the reported words.

Let us understand how to convert a speech from direct to indirect:

•    Direct Speech: She said, ‘I want some chocolates’.
•    Indirect Speech: She said that she wanted some chocolates.

•    Direct Speech: He said to me ‘Are you married’.
•    Indirect Speech: He asked me if I was married.

•    Direct Speech: She said to me, ‘I was waiting for you’.
•    Indirect Speech: She told me that she had been waiting for me.

•    Direct Speech: John said to me ‘I will call them tomorrow’.
•    Indirect Speech: John told me that he would call them the next day.

•    Direct Speech: She said to them, ‘Please wait here till I return’.
•    Indirect Speech: She requested them to wait there till she returned.

Rules for Changing Direct to Indirect Speech

It is a known fact that in a direct speech actual words are quoted with the support of inverted commas, whereas in an indirect speech, words are reported without quoting it exactly the way it is said. However, there are certain rules for changing a direct speech to an indirect speech, which are mentioned below:

Rule 1

Use conjunction ‘that’ before the indirect speech. For instance, she said that she had not finished her work.

Rule 2

Keeping in mind the gender of the subject, change the pronouns from the first and second person in direct speech to third person in indirect speech.

For example:

•    ‘I’ and ‘you’ becomes he or she    
•    ‘My’ and ‘your’ becomes his or her
•    ‘Our’ and ‘your’ becomes their
•    ‘We’ and ‘you’ becomes they

Some example sentences:

•    He said to me, ‘I hate you’ – Direct Speech
•    He said that he hates me- Indirect Speech
If the pronoun he or she indicates different person then the name of the person can be mentioned within the brackets after the pronoun.
•    Nancy said to Simon ‘I like your hair cut’. – Direct Speech
•    Nancy told Simon that she (Nancy) liked her (Simon’s) hair cut. – Indirect Speech

Rule 3

If the reporting verb is in present tense or future tense, the tense of the verb in the reported speech is not changed.
For instance:

•    She says, ‘she is leaving’. – Direct Speech
•    She says that she is leaving. – Indirect Speech

Rule 4

If the reporting verb is in the past tense, the tense of the verb in the reported speech is also changed into past tense.

For example:

•    Shall becomes should
•    May becomes might
•    Can becomes could
•    Come becomes came
•    Is coming becomes was coming
•    Is, am, are becomes was, were

Rule 5

Words stating nearness in time or place are changed into words express.

For example:

•    Here becomes there
•    Come becomes go
•    Yesterday becomes the previous day
•    These becomes those
•    Here becomes there
•    This becomes that
•    Now become then

Citation in English & Why it is Important?

A citation is a short note, which helps a reader in identifying the actual source. Sometimes, writers give important information in their article, blog or story, which is taken from another source like newspaper, magazine, film, novels, journal, book, etc. After providing the information, they write a short note mentioning the source from where the information is collected and that short note is known as a citation. It is either mentioned within the text, at the bottom of the page or at the end of the page.

A citation is considered both an acknowledgement as well as a signpost.  It is an acknowledgement as it reveals that you are grateful to that source. Besides, it is also called a signpost as it indicates the location of your source. Most writers use different formats to cite the real source. Some writers cite the source within the text and many writers mention it at the end of the page. The citation is provided to keep readers informed about whose ideas or thoughts you are using in your text.

Why Citation is Important

•    Citation is extremely important when you use someone else’s ideas or thoughts to validate your point. You will use someone’s information as an evidence to support your text. Through citation, you inform your readers that specific information is used in your piece of writing. The information can be taken from a book, newspaper, novel, journal, magazine or article.

•    Citing a source is essential as the idea of academia is a like a currency. The academia earns the currency by sharing knowledge and information to the world. Hence, through citation, the writer acknowledges their contribution and honors those who have created the ideas and thoughts. 

•    If you use someone else idea without acknowledging his or her work, you violate that person’s right. It will be considered like you have stolen someone else’s idea or information without giving him credit eventually you will lose your readers trust.

Rules for Colons and Semicolons

Colon & Semicolon

Colon is a punctuation mark which means "what is to be said" & "here is what i meant". Represented as ":" placed vertically. Semicolon is also a punctuation mark, which is used to divide major sentence elements. Represented as ";" and placed vertically.

What is Colon?

Colon refers to a punctuation mark, which is represented through two equal sized dots (:) placed on the same vertical line. The meaning of colon is “that is to say” and “here’s what I mean”. Generally, a colon is used to describe or begin an enumeration. Besides this, a colon is also used with titles and subtitles of books, salutation of business letter, formal letters, hours and minutes, ratios, etc. In simple words, a colon is used to introduce readers about the series of items, to draw attention to something, to present an explanation and it also joins ideas together.

Rules for Using a Colon

1.    Use a colon to introduce or explain a list of items. Make sure that you do not capitalize the first item after the colon (unless it is a proper noun)
2.    Use a colon to introduce a long quotation.
3.    Use a colon when giving an example or explanation.
4.    Do not use colon before a list.
5.    Use a colon to join sentences.
6.    Use a colon express time or use it in titles.
7.    Instead of the comma, use a colon to follow the salutation in a business letter. Use it when addressing someone by his or her first name.

What is Semicolon?

A semicolon is a punctuation mark, which divides major sentence elements. It is represented through one dot and one comma centered on the same vertical line (;). Like comma, semicolon shows an audible pause, which is longer than a comma, but short of a period’s full stop. A semicolon is used between two related independent clauses, which are not joined by a coordinating conjunction. In addition this, semicolons are sometimes used in place of commas to separate items in a list, specifically when the elements of the list contain commas.

Rules for Using a Semicolon

1.    A semicolon is used to link two complete sentences.
2.    It is used with words like however, therefore, namely, that is, for instance, for example, etc. Comma is also used with these words and terms.
3.    It is also used to clarify a list of items and when the items already contain commas.
4.    It can also be used between independent clauses that are linked by a connector including, but, or, and, nor, etc.

Dramatic Monologue & Examples

Dramatic monologue refers to a kind of poetry that is written in the form of speech of an individual character. In simple words, it is a long passage or an extract in a play, story or poem that tells a character’s thoughts and feelings. Dramatic monologue is basically a poem, which is written in a speech form and delivered by a single person. The poet describes vivid scenes by keeping in mind the character. Dramatic monologue is also known as persona poem. In this type of poem, the poet explains everything through an assumed voice of a character or a fictional identity. There is no dialogue in the poem. The dramatic monologues are the means of conveying the views of a character and giving the audience a better clarity about a character’s feeling. These are also used in novels to narrate stories.

Robert Browning was the popular English poet. He was considered the master of the dramatic monologue. His dramatic monologues depicted the most important use of the form of postromantic poetry.  Nowadays, the dramatic monologue is considered a lyric poem in which the poet addresses a silent listener by revealing himself as well as the dramatic situation.

The dramatic monologue is written when a character encounters an extreme crisis or a specific situation. The poet conveys the immense feeling or desire of the character through a dramatic monologue. The dramatic monologue can be written in poetic form, theatrical form or film form.

Examples of Dramatic Monologue: 

Generally, in a dramatic monologue, a speaker, who is other than the author, delivers a speech to a silent auditor or listener in a particular situation or at a critical moment. Some examples of dramatic monologue are mentioned below:

•    “My Last Duchess” by Robert Browning
•    “Someday Special” by Emidifi Defi 
•    “Pink Lace” by Poet Destroyer A
•    “When A Man Cries” by Maurice Yvonne
•    “To Bloom in Red Flame” by Eileen Manassian
•    “Going Home” by Verlena S. Walker
•    “A Cricket’s World” by Christine Phillips
•    “100 Years From Now” by Tammy Reams
•    “ To An Angel” by Ifedayo Mayowa
•    “Anxiety I Blame You” by Dennis Baze
•    “Bring it Down” by Eileen Manassian
•    “My Loss” by Alicia Koch

Transition Words and Phrases

Transition words and phrases are mainly used to connect an idea to another. These words and phrases allow readers to progress from one idea to another. In other words, transition words and phrases link a sentence or a paragraph to the next sentence or paragraph so as to make it understandable and meaningful for the readers. With the help of these words and phrases, the author communicates the ideas and thoughts clearly to the readers. The transitions describe the relationship between paragraphs or sentences and allow a reader to flow smoothly from one paragraph to another. The role of transition words and phrases is to build a connection between corresponding paragraphs or sentences so as to make the entire piece of writing legible.

The list of transition words and phrases are mentioned below:

  1. Addition - Moreover, finally, furthermore, besides, in addition, again, first, too, lastly, even more, also, secondly, next, etc.
  2. Comparison - Similarly, likewise, in the same way, in like manner, etc.
  3. Contrast - However, otherwise, though, yet, nevertheless, but, on the contrary, on the other hand, at the same time, notwithstanding, after all, etc.
  4. Time - Afterwards, while, next, sometimes, always, once, simultaneously, when, during, so far, then, in the meantime, now, subsequently, soon, following, immediately, whenever, etc.
  5. Exemplification or illustration - For example, for instance, specifically, to demonstrate, to illustrate, etc.

  • Place - Nearby, beyond, above, below, wherever, here, there, opposite to, adjacent to, etc.
  • Cause - Because, for that reason, since, on account of, etc.
  • Effect - Consequently, thus, hence, as a result, therefore, accordingly, etc.
  • Clarification - To explain, to clarify, in other words, to rephrase it, etc.
  • Purpose - So that, in order that, for this purpose, to that end, etc.
  • Qualification - Although, frequently, probably, nearly, maybe, never, perhaps, almost, etc.
  • Intensification - Undoubtedly, surely, indeed, in fact, by all means, certainly, in fact, yes, no, etc.
  • Concession - Of course, to be sure, granted, etc.
  • Summary - In brief, to summarize, in short, in summary, to sum up, etc.
  • Conclusion - Finally, to conclude, in conclusion, etc.
  • Demonstratives as transitions - These, this, those and that.
Transitional words and phrases capture the attention of readers by building a connection between ideas or paragraphs. These words have different meanings, connotations and tone. Hence, the words and phrases are used logically to connect a specific paragraph to another paragraph.

What are Tenses? With Types & Examples

A tense is a verb form that indicates the time of an action. It is categorized into three different forms such as present tense, past tense and future tense. Let us understand all the tenses in detail.

Types of Tenses

1. Present Tense: The present tense explains a current event or state of being. Apart from this, the present tense sometimes explains past and future events. For instance, ‘the party ends at 9.00 o’clock’ (future event). The present tense is further divided into following types:

i. Simple Present Tense:  It is used to explain facts and habits and scheduled events in the future. Besides, it is also used to narrate stories so as to engage readers in the story.


•    I like cake and cookies.
•    The sun rises in the east.

ii. Present Progressive or Present Continuous Tense: The present progressive tense is used to describe an act, which is going on at the time of speaking.


•    I am watching my favorite TV show.
•    Tom is having his dinner now.

iii. Present Perfect Tense: It describes an event happened in the past and still continuing into the present.


•    I have always wished to do Paragliding.
•    I have been exercising regularly to lose my weight.

iv.  Present Perfect Continuous or Present Perfect Progressive Tense: It is used for a situation that has happened in the past and continuous until the moment. Besides, it is also used for situation occurred in the past, but has now finished.


•    Emma has been relying on salary increment to pay her study loan.
•    We haven’t been talking with John since Thursday.

2. Past Tense: The past tense expresses an event happened in the past or a state of being. For example, ‘I went to the temple’. The past tense is broadly categorized into following types:

i. Simple Past Tense: The simple past tense is used to describe an action of the past. In the past tense, the verb ends with an ‘ed’.


•    We went out for dinner last night.
•    Robin worked in the old office for almost 9 years.

ii. Past Continuous Tense or Past Progressive Tense: It narrates the on-going activity in the past. These sentences are written with the help of an auxiliary verb.


•    We were playing volleyball when it started to rain.
•    I was studying at 12.00 p.m. yesterday.

iii.  Past Perfect Tense: It is used to indicate an action that was completed before another took place.


•    We didn’t get the movie ticket because we had not booked in advance.
•    I had never seen such a magnificent monument before.

iv. Past Perfect Continuous Tense: The past perfect continuous tense is used to describe an on-going action, which was ended in the past. These sentences are formed with the help of modal 'had' + 'been' + the present participle of the verb (-ing).


•    I had been going.
•    I had been playing the chess all morning.

3. Future Tense: The future tense describes a future event or a future of being. For instance, ‘I will buy a car next year’. The future tense is divided into following types:

i. Simple Future Tense: The simple future tense refers to an action, which will happen in the future.


•    I will keep in touch with you.
•    Sara will stay with us for 5 days.

ii. Future Continuous Tense: The future continuous tense is used to describe an on-going action, which will happen in the future.


•    I will be going to the gym soon.
•    I will be watching the football match next month.

iii. Future Perfect Tense: It is used to describe an action, which is expected to be completed within a certain span of time in the future. These sentences are framed by 'will' + 'have' + 'past participle of the verb'.


•    By the time you reach, we will have finished our dinner. 
•    Sasha will have gone by the time you reach there by car.

iv. Future Perfect Continuous Tense: This tense is used for an on-going action, which will be completed at some stipulated time in the future. The sentences are framed using the modal 'will/shall' + 'have' + 'been' + 'the past participle of the verb (-ing)'.


•    I will have been singing for 1 hours by the time you arrive here.
•    Next Monday, I will have been working on the topmost project for two years.

Sentences and Fragments

Sentence fragments are collection of words, which looks like small sentences. In other words, sentence fragments are incomplete or unfinished sentences, which are disconnected from the main clause.  A main clause refers to a group of words, which contain a subject and a predicate and can stand on its own. In order to make a sentence, a collection of words should have at least one independent clause or main clause.

Sentence fragments have dependent clause or phrase instead of the independent clause. Generally, fragments start with a capital letter and end with a full stop and act like real sentences. The sentence fragments do not express a complete thought as these are pieces of sentences.

For example:

•    Over there
•    On the table
•    Since you asked
•    After the rain stops
•    Because his bike was in the shop
•    If I walk home

The aforesaid sentences are fragments as these sentences do not express a complete thought or idea.  Let us see some examples of complete sentences that are created with the help of sentence fragments:

•    The boy standing over there is Tom.
•    My book is on the table.
•    Since you asked, I am going to London tomorrow.
•    He went home after the rain stopped.
•    George took the cab because his bike was in the shop.
•    If I walk home at night I will call you.

Sentence fragments lack in a subject or a verb or both therefore these are known as incomplete sentences. The dependent clauses are the most confusing fragments as these sentences have a subject and a verb so they look like complete sentences. However, these sentences do not express a complete thought. The sentences cannot stand alone and need more information to complete an idea or thought. If a sentence fragment contains a subject and a verb and it expresses a thought then it will be a complete sentence.

Parts of Speech With Types and Examples

In English language, a word is recognized as the smallest element. Each word has different meaning and used in a certain manner. Keeping in mind the usage and functions of a group of words, these are divided into different forms, which are also known as part of speech. There are eight main parts of speech in English grammar which includes noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, interjection and conjunction.  Let us understand the parts of speech in detail.

1. Noun: A noun is the most common part of speech. It refers to the group of words that are used to name a person, place, thing, animal or an idea. In other words, a noun helps in identifying anything that we can see, hear, smell, think and taste. A noun can be categorized into concrete and abstract forms. A concrete noun can be directly experienced with the help of the senses. For example, water, human, park, bus, etc. An abstract noun represents emotions and other intangible experiences such as patriotism, hate and love.

For example:

  • My friend is traveling to Berlin next month.
  • Children like to go to the park.

2. Pronoun: A pronoun refers to a word which is used in place of a noun. In other words, a pronoun acts as a replacement of a noun in a sentence. Instead of repeating names of a person or a thing in a sentence, we can use pronouns like he, she, her, his, their, our, I, it, mine, etc.

For example:

  • The largest piece of the cake is mine.
  • Mrs. Jennifer taught English and she is my favorite teacher.

3. Adjective: An adjective is an important part of a speech as it describes or modifies a noun or a pronoun in a certain way. An adjective indicates the quality, color, size, shape and the number of nouns or pronouns in a sentence.

For example:

  • I got five doughnuts free from Dunkin' Donuts.
  • My mother has prepared dark chocolate brown cake for my sister’s birthday.

4. Verb: A verb is the significant part of a speech. A sentence would not be complete without a verb. In a sentence, a verb explains what a noun is doing or experiencing. It shows an action (physical or mental) in a sentence or state of being of the subject in a sentence.

For example:

  • The cake will bake in 15 minutes.
  • They are always ready to help in times of trouble. (The verb ‘are’ refers to the state of being of the pronoun ‘they’ that is the subject in the sentence)

5. Adverb: Like adjectives, adverbs are also used to describe words specifically adjectives, verbs and other adverbs. It does not modify nouns or pronouns.

For example:

  • He completely understands her problem.
  • I so want that new dress.

6. Preposition: Preposition is a part of speech and it refers to the words that introduce information to readers. It describes a location or a location in time. In other words, it informs about when, where and why something takes place.

For example:

  • We will meet at 5 o’clock.
  • The extra pillows are in the box under the bed.

7.  Conjunction: Conjunction refers to a group of words that connects phrases, words and clauses together. The conjunction words are but, for, nor, or, so, yet, etc. 

For example:

  • You can eat the omelet with a spoon or fork.  
  • I am vegetarian, so I don’t eat meat. 

8. Interjection: Interjections are represented by an exclamation mark. This part of speech expresses strong emotions in a sentence.

For example:

  • Hurray, I passed the test.
  • Wow! that’s a fantastic news. 
These are the important parts of speech which are used while writing and talking. Keep checking my blogs i am going to write more.

Affixes in English Grammar

In English grammar, affix refers to a grammatical element which is combined with a word or phrase to create derived and inflected forms. Affix is broadly categorized into three different types including prefix, infix and suffix. A prefix is placed at the beginning of a word so as to alter or change its meaning (for example, ‘Disadvantage’, here ‘dis’ is used as a prefix). A suffix is placed at the end of a word in order to create a new word (for example, ‘Careful’, here ‘full’ is used as a suffix). Further, an infix is placed in the middle of the word. However, the English language has no infixes, but they are mostly found in Greek or American Indian Languages.

The process of adding a morpheme (affix) to a word to produce a different form of that word or to create a new word with different meaning is known as affixation. Some example words are mentioned below:

•    Start- Restart
•    Appear- Disappear
•    Dark- Darkness
•    Fond- Fondness
•    Car- Cars
•    Act- Action

Definition of Affix

A word element (a prefix, suffix or infix), which can be joined to a base or root to create a new word is known as an affix.  An affix can be added at the beginning of the root or it can be placed at the end of a root so as to form a new form of the word.

There are different kinds of affixes

  1. Prefix
  2. Suffix
  3. Infix
  4. Circumfix
  5. Simulfix
  6. Suprafix

Some prefix words are mentioned below:

•    Market - Supermarket
•    Work - Overwork
•    Load - Overload
•    Happy - Unhappy
•    Developed - Underdeveloped    
•    Convenient – Inconvenient
•    Marine – Submarine

Some suffix words are mentioned below:

•    Comfort - Comfortable 
•    Gold - Golden
•    Fear - Fearless
•    Enjoy - Enjoyment
•    Child - Childish
•    Friend - Friendship
•    Meaning- Meaningless

Some words containing both prefix and suffix are mentioned below:

•    Inconsolable  (in – prefix) (able – suffix)
•    Unlikely  (un- prefix) (ly- suffix)
•    Immeasurable (im- prefix) (able- suffix)
•    Unpredictable (un- prefix) (able- suffix)
•    Disrespectful  (dis- prefix) (ful-suffix)
•    Multicultural (multi- prefix) (al -suffix)
•    Unconsciousness (un- prefix) (ness- suffix)

What are Clauses?

A clause is a group of words that encompasses a subject and a verb. Clauses are instrumental in expressing the thoughts and ideas of an individual. In other words, clauses allow us to express ourselves and convey our expression to others. For instance, ‘I love pizza, especially with cold drinks’. Clauses are entirely different from phrases. A phrase is a collection of related words that does not contain a subject-verb agreement. For example, ‘A small, white kitten’. Here, the phrase contains a subject, but it does not have a verb. There are two types of clauses, including independent clause and a dependent clause.

1. Independent Clause: An independent clause is also known as a main clause. It can stand on its own therefore it is called as an independent clause. An independent clause has all information to complete a sentence. In an independent clause, a subject gives a better idea about the sentence and the verb explains what the subject is doing. In simple words, an independent clause describes a complete thought. 

For example:

•    Nancy is playing with a dog at the park. (Here, ‘Nancy’ is the subject and ‘Playing’ is the verb. It expresses a complete thought) 
•    The pizza burned because I forgot to take it out of the oven on time. (Here, ‘Pizza’ is the subject and ‘Burned’ is the verb. Hence, the clause explains a complete thought and stand on its own)

2. Dependent Clause:

A dependent clause is recognized as a subordinate clause. It contains a subject or a verb, but it does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause cannot stand on its own. It is combined with one or more independent clauses to form a sentence. It is dependent because it begins with dependent words such as although, since, before, after, though, in order to, because, if, what, when, who, which, why, etc.

For example:

•    Does anyone know where we are going tonight? (Here, ‘We’ is the subject and ‘Going’ is the verb, but the clause does not express a complete thought)
•    I forgot where I put the house keys. (Here, ‘I’ is the subject and ‘Put’ is the verb, but the clause does not explain a complete thought and cannot stand on its own as a sentence)

•    The Adjective Clause
•    The Adverbial Clause
•    The Noun Clause

What are Phrases?

A phrase is two or more words, which are related to each other. It does not express a complete thought like a clause as it does not contain a subject or a verb. For instance, Broken into thousands of pieces. (Here, the phrase does not explain a complete thought)

To express a word in a specific way is also called a phrase. A phrase can be short and can be long and it appears within a clause. However, a phrase can be a clause or it contains a clause within it. In a sentence, phrases can have several functions as these can be used as subjects, objects, modifiers, complements or adverbials. Depending on the words, a phrase can be recognized as a noun, adjective, verb, adverb or preposition in a sentence.

Types of Phrases

1. Noun Phrase: A noun phrase contains a place, person or thing and the modifiers that explain it. The head word in the noun will be either a noun or pronoun.

For example:

•    I consider him my favorite actor
•    He gave the small child a candy. 

2. Verb Phrase: A verb phrase refers to a predicate of a sentence. In the verb phrase, the head word is the verb, which expresses action or link subject and complement.

For example:

•    The writer is writing a new story.
•    Those girls are not dancing properly.

3. Adjective Phrase: An adjective phrase refers to a group of adjectives. It describes the noun with the help of adjectives.

For example:

•    The cost of the dress was too high.
•    My little pet makes me very happy.

4. Adverb Phrase: When two or more words, act as an adverb, it is called as adverb phrase. It can change or modify a verb, adverb or adjective.

For example:

•    She will sit quietly.
•    I will finish my work in a minute.

5. Prepositional Phrase: In prepositional phrase, a preposition is the head word, which acts as a noun, adjective or an adverb in a sentence.

For example:

•    The gift inside the big box is mine.
•    The house beside the church is the one I want to purchase.

More detailed explanation on Types of Phrases

English Grammar