Key Elements of Story

A story is a wonderful or inspiring tale. It contains a single character or a series of characters. A story can be factual or fictional narrative. It can be a plot of fiction or drama. A story is also an account of facts, a news report, a falsehood or a legend of romance. Stories are depicted in various forms such as novel, poem, memoir, play or film. Through a story, an author tells a true or fictional tale to the readers or listeners. In simple words, an author or writer communicates information, point of view, experience or attitude. Generally, a story is a series of events that are imagined or created to tell something or answer a question to the listeners. A story has five key elements that maintain a smooth flow and allow the action to develop in a coherent manner. The important elements of a story are discussed below in detail. 

1. Characters: Characters or protagonists are the main pillars of the story. By introducing the characters in the story, an author allows readers to visualize their appearance and attitude. It is done by giving a detailed description of a character including physical features and personality. Every story encompasses a main character, which helps in developing the plot in a logical manner. Besides, other characters also play a significant role in completing the entire story.

2. Setting: Setting in a story is the location of the action. An author or writer explains the setting in such a manner that readers imagine that they are present in that location or surrounding. Sometimes, the author provides an unusual setting in the story to arouse the interest of readers. However, a normal setting generally helps readers to make a connection with the story.

3. Plot: A plot is the story that contains a proper beginning, middle and end. It provides necessary details with suspense so as to give readers an opportunity to visualize the action and understand the starting and end points of a story.

4. Conflict: A story usually contains conflict. The entire story revolves around the conflict. Besides, the characters play their roles to resolve the problem. When the action in the story becomes interesting, right before the resolution, then it is known as the climax.

5. Resolution: Resolution maintains a correct flow in the story and solves all parts of the conflicts.

How to write a research paper and its parts

A research paper is a thesis or an extended essay, which is written on a specific topic like social, scientific or technical issues. It expresses your own evaluation, interpretation or argument on a topic. While writing a research paper, you mention only those points that you know about the subject or what experts have said, whereas in essay you share your personal experiences or thoughts. A research paper is prepared after conducting a thorough survey. By collecting essential information from different sources like book, magazine, newspaper and internet, etc. a proper research paper is being prepared by the writer.

Parts of Research Paper

1.    Title
2.    Abstract
3.    Introduction
4.    Procedure or Methods
5.    Results
6.    Conclusion or Discussion
7.    Bibliography

Let us see the steps to write a research paper:

•    Select a Topic: Selecting a topic is the first and foremost thing when you are writing a research paper. Choose an appropriate topic, which you can research well and can write about it.  If anyone is also writing on the same topic, then try to make your research paper unique and informative. Besides, if you are not able to gather information about the topic, then change your topic.

•    Do Research on the Topic: Start your research on the topic with the help of newspapers, blog posts, journals and articles, books and magazines. Always search for empirical research. The books or articles written by experts are the real source of information. These sources will surely give you accurate information about your topic.

•    Prepare an Outline: Once you are done with your research work. Create an outline with the help of your research findings. Structure all your points or phrases, which you have highlighted. Whether your research is argumentative or analytical, you have clear each and every point with the help of proper evidence or supporting facts. Apart from this, create a bibliography or reference page and mention the author’s name, title and page number from where you have taken the information for your topic.

•   Write an Introduction Part: Introduce the topic to your readers and explain why you have selected that topic. Tell them whether your research is analytical or argumentative.

•   Write the Body Paragraph: Support each and every statement with proper facts and figures. Express your own views or ideas so as to keep your research work unique. Provide as much information as you can in order to draw the attention of the readers.

•  Write the Conclusion: Summarize your research findings clearly and concisely. Begin the conclusion section by restating your thesis statement. After that mention the points that justify your topic.

•   Document your Paper: In order to avoid plagiarism, you should document your research paper in an appropriate manner. Based on your topic and field of study, you have to mention the source information from where you have taken the information.

•   Edit your Draft: Edit your draft precisely. Check whether all the points are written in an organized manner. Rearrange the information wherever required. In addition to this, check for grammar error and adjust the line spacing and margin.

What is a Homographs and its Uses

Homographs refer to the words that have different meaning, pronunciation and origin but same spelling. In simple words, homographs are those words, which share same spelling, but differ in pronunciation, origin and meaning. For instance, ‘bat’ – an animal as well as sports equipment. The word ‘homograph’ is derived from the Greek word ‘homos’, which means ‘the same’ and graph means ‘to write’.

Some homograph words are mentioned below:

•    Agape – Love ( a Greek word) or a wide open mouth (In a state of amazement) 
•    Bass – A deep voice or a kind of fish
•    Bow- To incline or a kind of knot
•    Compact – Small or a small make-up case
•    Close – Near or to Shut
•    Entrance – A means by which to enter or to fill with delight
•    Fine – A levy or  of superior quality
•    Fly –  To move through the air or an insect
•    Lead – To direct in a course or a type of metal
•    Left – Went or direction
•    Minute – Tiny or unit of time
•    Object – To oppose or a thing
•    Pupil – Student or a part of eye
•    Sewer – A person who sews or drain
•    Tear – a watery discharge from the eye or  to rip
•    Wound – To injure or past tense of wind
•    Wave – Sea water coming into shore or to move the hand in greeting

Uses of homographs

Homographs can be used in sentences in following ways.

1.    Bat
•    You cannot hit the ball too fast with a light bat.
•    Bats are the only mammals that can fly.

2.    Bow
•    I have learned to make a bow with a satin ribbon.
•    People in Japan usually bow to show respect.

3.    Close
•    The water park is close to the zoological park.
•    Did you close the door?

4.    Minute
•    Sea water contains thousands of minute particles.
•    I will be there in 2 minutes.

5.    Tear
•    Did you tear pages out of your book?
•    I don’t know why tears come out of my eyes for no reason.

Difference between literally and figuratively

Literally and figuratively are the two most common words that are widely used in the English language.  The word ‘literal’ means exactly. When we say literary in a phrase that means something actually happened or really happened. In simple words, literally refers to a phrase that describes a real thing or a word that is in accordance with its original meaning. For instance, can you wait for me? Or she was born into a wealthy family.

On the other hand, figuratively means metaphorically. Figurative languages are widely found in poetry and literature. The figurative words or phrases convey something different from the literal meaning. In other words, through figures of speech, it expresses a phrase not in a real sense, but in a metaphorical way. For example, do you have the patience to wait for me? Or she was born with a silver spoon in her mouth.

In English language, literally indicates what is exactly said and happened, whereas figurative language is expressed by using similes, hyperbole, metaphors and personification so as to explain something. Through figurative language, a phrase is over embellished or exaggerated.
Let us see some literally and figurative examples:

Literal Description

•    Sky looks blue
•    Cotton is soft
•    Honey is sweet
•    Honey bee stings are painful
•    The desert is dry

Figurative Description

•    The cloud act like a blanket (simile)
•    Time is money (metaphor)
•    The sun is a golden ball (metaphor)
•    The weather is as cold as ice (simile)
•    Her cheeks are red like a rose (simile)

Difference between Discursive and Argumentative Essay

Essay writing is a great way of analyzing the critical thinking skills of students. It is an ideal medium to improve the writing skills of students and also encourage them to express their point of view or opinion to others. An essay is broadly categorized into four types, including expository, persuasive, analytical and argumentative essay. Here, we will discuss about the discursive essay and argumentative essay. Both the essays, discursive and argumentative are written after a thorough investigation and observation.

Discursive essay examine and analyze two possible points of view, whereas an argumentative essay argues particular point of view. In other words, discursive essay discusses about two or more opposing perspectives, but argumentative essay discusses about one perspective. While writing these essays, a writer conducts a meticulous research on the topics or issues so as to gather strong evidences to support his or her point of view. Generally, these essays are written on controversial issues or topics. The structure and objective of these essays differ from each other. Let us see how the styles of discursive and argumentative essays vary.

1.  Topic Selection: A discursive essay is mainly written on two or more topics or issues. It presents the two opposing perspectives in a balanced manner. On the other hand, argumentative essay discusses about a particular topic or issue. It gives a set of reasons to convince the reader to a specific point of view.

2.  Writing Style: When writing a discursive essay, a writer presents his or her opinion on the issue or a topic. Besides, it is written in a formal and impersonal way. It starts with an introduction that talks about the topic or issue and each issue must be discussed in a separate paragraph. On the other hand, in an argumentative essay, the writer presents an opinion by using metamorphic strategies so as to convince readers. Apart from this, it is written in a general format, which includes introduction paragraph, body paragraph and the conclusion.    

3.  The Objective of Discursive and Argumentative Essay: The discursive essay talks about the issues or topics that revolve around some kind of controversy whereas argumentative essay are like a debate on a topic. In an argumentative essay, a writer argues on a specific point and tries to persuade the reader on his or her opinion.

Different Techniques of Persuasive Writing

A persuasive writing is kind of writing in which a writer tries to persuade the reader on his or her point of view. In simple words, persuasive writing is a type of writing in which the writer strives to convince the reader that his or her opinion on a particular issue is actually correct and logical. It is the most popular and widely used writing form. In persuasive writing, the writer uses various techniques to support his or her opinion, so as to persuade the readers. Let us understand the different techniques of persuasive writing

1.  Use the right tone: Needless to say, what you want to convey is important, but it is also necessary that you convey it by using a right tone. It matters a lot when you are able to influence your readers through your writing skills. 

2.  Establish connection with the reader: Just as we meet lots of people day in day out but we tend to talk more often to the people with whom we feel we have some comfort level same applies while writing. In case you have some mutual connection, establish them at the earliest so that the reader develops the interest.

3.  Switch the role: To excel in persuasive writing, sometimes we need to switch our role from a writer to a reader and have a walk through the writing to check what is appealing in the writing. 

4.  Usage of Impactful words: Persuasive writing becomes more meaningful if you use some impactful words like discount, bargain or some words like wisdom, confidence which will boost the reader’s interest.

5.  Story Telling: The best way to connect with the reader is by binding them to a story in which they also feel involved. But while writing a story, ensures that you emphasize on both sides of the story and not a single sided story.

6.  Simplified Language: Use simple words to explain a thought and amplify that with an example which connects the reader emotionally.

What are the Punctuation Rules

Punctuation mark plays a very significant role in a sentence. Using the correct punctuation at the correct place enhances the readability as well as gives clarity to what is being said. Incorrect punctuation or no punctuation may not give any meaning of the sentence. For example:

I am hungry eating pizza it is raining cannot go to playground for practice.

Now let us add the correct punctuation and see if this makes any difference.

Since I am hungry, I am eating pizza.  As it is raining, we cannot go to playground for practice.

Having set the background, let us delve a little further to understand the punctuation rules followed in English Grammar. Below are the 10 punctuation rules which are widely followed:

  Period or Full Stop (.): Most commonly used punctuation in English grammar. This basically plays the role of a knife by cutting a sentence to a desired length and adding meaning to it. In other words periods denote the end of the sentence. Periods are also used in abbreviations when the final letter of the abbreviation is not final letter of the actual word. Sometimes we will find some sentences ending with three dots which indicate that the text is quoted or is left for the reader’s imagination.

  Comma (,): Commas are mostly used to organize the logical blocks of the sentences. In other words, to group the logical sounded words into one. Commas are mostly used when making lists of items to segregate one list from the other. Sentences beginning with a dependent clause should always be followed by a comma. Series of noun, adjectives, and phrases usually requires a comma.

  Exclamatory Mark (!) : Sentences ending with an exclamation mark signifies the surprise or astonishment feeling.

  Question Mark (?) : Mostly interrogative sentences end with a question mark or in other terms, if something has to be asked those sentences end with a question mark.

  Quote Mark (“”) :  Quotations are normally used in direct speech. When we want to report what has been said without making any changes those sentences should be surrounded by quotes.

•   Colon (:) : Colons are used at the end of a complete sentence to introduce or to give an explanation of the previous sentence. Colon also used to separate hours and minutes when writing time in English.

•    Semi Colon (;) : Sentences not having any coordinating conjunction can be joined with a related independent clause which are of equal importance using semicolon. The semicolon can be used also to separate lists in case the items in the list are already separated by comma.

  Apostrophe (‘) : Apostrophe is mostly used in case you wanted to make something possessive or to identify a missing letter or to form strange plurals.

  Hyphen and Dash (-) : Hyphens are used to join two words or parts of words together removing ambiguity or confusions. On the other hand Dash is used to emphasize a specific point in the sentence.

  Parentheses and brackets (()): Parentheses denoted by round brackets () are used mostly for providing an explanation or adding an afterthought to the main subject. Sometimes parentheses can be replaced by a comma.

Capitalization Rules in English Grammar

Capitalization refers to a writing skill where the first word is written in uppercase and rests of the words are written in lower case. There are few rules defined as mentioned below which govern the use of capitalization.

1. The first word of the document or the first word after the period should be always written in Capital or uppercase. For example, Children have completed their homework. They are playing in the ground now.
The capitalization should not be done if the title immediately follows or precedes a name. For example, Dhoni is the only captain to win two world cup matches.
If the title comes before the name, then it should be capitalized.  For example, I saw Captain Dhoni in the mall today.

2. First word in direct speech should be capitalized. For example, My dad asked “Have you completed the homework?”

3. Brand names should always be capitalized, but the noun following it should not be capitalized. For example, I like Audi Q6 model.

4. Geographical features should be capitalized if they point to a specific attribute.

5. Proper nouns should always be capitalized. For example, names of person, cities, planets, animals, countries, mountains.

6. If an independent clause begins after a colon, then the first letter should be capitalized.

7. Common nouns should not be capitalized. For example cat, church, etc. are common nouns which should not be capitalized.

8. Occupations before full name should not be capitalized. For example, chef Tommy or actress Angelina Jolie.

9. Nicknames should always be capitalized.

10. First word in a complete quotation should be always be capitalized.

11. Relative’s family name should always be capitalized if it precedes a personal name or if they are used in place of personal names.

12. Historical events, specific era should be capitalized always since that will differentiate between the normal regime and special events.

Different Types of Determiners

Determiner is a grammatical form and a type of noun modifier that precedes and followed by the noun. In simple words, it is used in a sentence to give additional information about the noun. These are used before a noun or a noun phrase so as to point out a specific thing, object, place or a person. The role of determiners is to express reference. In other words, determiners clarify what a noun is referring to. For example, He saw the actress (Here, ‘the actress’ means a particular actress) or His father is a doctor (Here, ‘a doctor’ refers to a particular person).  Let us understand different types of determiners in detail.

1.  Articles:  Articles are the most popular determiners. A, an and the are the articles that are used in a sentence to specify a noun. ‘A’ and ‘an’ are indefinite articles as they indicate a group of noun in the sentence. ‘The’ is a definite article that specifies a particular noun in the sentence.

For example:

The statue of liberty is the symbol of freedom.
He is an artist.
She has a famous writer.

2.  Quantifiers: The quantifiers are used to define the quantity like a little, a few, more, most, much, enough, many, much, any, etc.

For example:

I have enough chocolates.
He has many friends.

3.  Possessives: Possessives are one form of determiners that shows ownership or possession of a noun. My, our, his, her or there are possessive determiners.

For example:

This is my dress.
His mobile phone is very expensive.

4.  Demonstratives: These determiners describe the location and position of a noun from the speaker’s point of view. These, that, this and those are demonstrative determiners.

For example:

This car is mine.
These books are good for test preparation.

5.  Interrogatives: Interrogative determiners are used in the sentence for asking questions. Whose, what and which are interrogative determiners.

For example:

Which fruit do you like the most?
What would you like to have for dinner?

Kinds of Subjunctive Mood in English Grammar

In English grammar, the mood indicates the attitude of the writer. There are different types of mood in English grammar such as imperative mood, indicative mood and subjunctive mood. The subjunctive mood is a verb form that is used in a situation which is not factual or doubtful. In simple words, when the verb is in the subjunctive mood, then it expresses different states of unreality or unreal situations, including wish, opinion, emotion, judgment, action, possibility, demand, regret, proposal, etc. It starts with the word ‘if’ and commonly found in a clause.

Uses of Subjunctive Mood

It is used after a wish, if, as if.
It is used after the different types of verbs such as recommend, ask, suggest, command, insist, propose, etc.
It is used after the expressions such as it is important, it is necessary, it is desirable, etc.

Subjunctive statements mostly denote an action which is in the future and hence the tenses will be applied in a different manner. In other words, tense of indicative verbs may be changed, but the tense of subjunctive verbs indicating a futuristic action does not change.

For example:

I wish finance minister could give more tax rebate.
I suggest he implements the design as given in the magazine.

When ‘if’ clause is used as a subjunctive verb, the statements become trickier. As there is no surety of action being performed, we cannot have any tense. For example, if I were to become VP in next 10 years, I would make changes in the work culture.

People often tend to make an error when they use “to be” in the subjunctive mood. The correct usage would be to use “be” in the present tense and “were” in the past tense irrespective of the subject.

For example:

It will be good if hearing of the case is postponed.
If I were rich, I would buy the palatial building and build a swimming pool on top floor.

Basic Elements of Short Stories

A story is a one form of narrative that gives a specific kind of pleasure to listeners and readers. The different characters and their actions make a story interesting for the readers. It is the inquisitiveness of listeners and readers that empower the writer to write an interesting story. Stories have different genre like comic story, tragic story and values in action stories, teaching stories and vision stories. Similarly, short stories are categorized into various types. A short story is small work fiction, which is created with the help of imaginary characters. Let us understand the basic elements of short stories.

1.  Setting: In a short story, a setting refers to the place and time in which the story takes place. Setting plays an important role in many short stories. It illustrates the geographical location, time period and weather condition of the story.

2.  Character: A character is a person or an animal that are identified in the story through their actions and dialogues. In simple words, characters are those persons who are represented in a dramatic work. In the story, the central character is recognized as a protagonist and the person who opposes the central character is known as the antagonist.

3.  Plot: A plot is series of events that are arranged in a proper order by the writer. Usually, a plot consists of a beginning, middle and the end part. A short story normally has one plot.

4.  Conflicts: The conflict refers to the struggle or problems between two characters or things. It is an essential part of a short story and without conflict there will be no plot. In a story, the central character may struggle against other character, society, and natural calamity or against his or her emotions and feelings.

5.  Theme: It is the main idea or belief in a short story. It depends on the writer that how he narrates the story.

What are Kinds of Pronoun and its Uses

In English grammar, a pronoun is recognized as a part of speech. It is a word or phrase that is replaced with a noun or noun phrase. Pronouns can be used as a subject, indirect and direct object and the object of the preposition. A pronoun is used in a sentence to avoid the repetition of a noun. ‘It’, ‘she’, ‘he’, ‘we’, ‘who’ and ‘they’ are widely used pronouns. Besides, these are also used for some adjectives, adverbs and other pronouns. Thus, if you want to describe about a person, place, animal or thing, then you can use pronouns and can make the sentence concise and clear for the readers.

Types of Pronoun

A pronoun is broadly categorized into following types:

1.    Personal pronoun
2.    Possessive pronoun
3.    Reflexive pronoun
4.    Relative pronoun
5.    Demonstrative pronoun

Let us understand the usage of different kinds of pronouns in detail.

1.    Personal Pronoun: Personal pronoun refers to a specific person, thing or group. It represents a thing or a person with the help word like ‘I’, ‘It’, ‘She’, ‘He’, ‘You’, ‘We’, ‘You’ and ‘They’.

For example:

•    He helps aged people.
•    They won the tournament

2.   Possessive Pronoun: Possessive pronoun shows ownership or close possession. Besides, it shows the relationship of a person or thing to another person or thing. ‘Mine’, ‘Ours’, ‘Yours’, ‘His’, ‘Their’ and ‘Her’ are possessive pronouns.

For example:

•    This painting is mine.
•    Her voice is really good.

3.  Reflexive Pronoun: A reflexive pronoun acts with another noun or pronoun when something does something to itself. In other words, reflexive pronoun explains a noun when subject’s action influence the subject itself. ‘Myself’, ‘Herself’, ‘Himself’, ‘Ourself’, ‘Themselves’ and ‘Yourself’ are reflexive pronoun.

For example:

•    They prepare themselves for the match.
•    How do you build confidence in yourself?

4.  Relative Pronoun: A relative pronoun is used to explain a noun that has been mentioned before and to give more information about that noun. ‘Which’, ‘Who’, ‘That’, ‘Whom’ and ‘Whose’ are relative pronoun.

For example:

•    The painter who designed this painting is standing outside.
•    The girl whom I met yesterday is my classmate.

5.  Demonstrative Pronoun: A demonstrative pronoun is used to replace certain thing or people, which have been previously mentioned. ‘This’, ‘That’, ‘Those’ and ‘These’ are demonstrative pronoun.

For example:

•    Those are rotten.
•    This is blue.

Classification of Adjectives in English Grammar

An adjective is a part of speech that modifies, describes and quantifies a noun or pronoun in the sentence. Apart from one word, a cluster of words with a subject and a verb also acts as an adjective. In this case, the cluster of words is considered an adjective clause. An adjective is classified into five parts, which includes:

•    Possessive adjective
•    Descriptive adjective
•    Adjective of quantity or numeral adjective
•    Demonstrative adjective
•    Interrogative adjective

Let us understand the different types of adjectives in detail.

1.  Possessive Adjective: a possessive adjective shows possession of a noun by something or someone. It is quite similar to possessive pronoun. ‘His’, ‘her’, ‘my’, ‘our’, ‘your’, ‘their’ and ‘its’ are possessive adjective.

For example:

•    Your mobile phone is lying on the table.
•    Her husband is standing outside.

2.  Descriptive Adjective: A descriptive adjective describes the quality or the type of noun or pronoun.

For example:

•    Sherry is a beautiful girl.
•    Rock is very tall.

3.   Adjective of Quantity or Numeral Adjective: A numeral adjective expresses the number of nouns. This type of adjective is also known as an adjective of quantity, which answers the questions like ‘how many’ or ‘how much’?

For example:

•    Twenty pilgrims injured in a bus accident.
•    She needs more money.

4.  Demonstrative Adjective: This form of the adjective is mainly used to point out nouns or pronouns. A demonstrative adjective always come before the word they are describing. ‘These’, ‘this’, ‘those’ and ‘that’ are demonstrative adjective.

For example:

•    I always prefer to wear this type of dress.
•    That girl is cute.

5.  Interrogative Adjective: Interrogative adjective is used for interrogation. In simple words, it is used to ask questions like ‘what’, ‘where’, ‘which’, etc.

For example:

•    What are you cooking today?
•    Which place would you like visit? 

What are Heteronyms give some examples

Heteronyms are the words that have similar spelling but different meaning and pronunciation. These are also known as homographs, but not homophones. Heteronyms are certain types of homographs that are identified through pronunciation and meaning. Some heteronyms sound as verb and others as a noun. Besides this, most heteronyms have related meanings, but some have totally different meaning. A list of words is mentioned below that are heteronyms.

1.    Alternate (verb) and alternate (adjective)
2.    Affect (verb) and affect (noun)
3.    Bass (voice) and bass (fish)
4.    Close (verb) and close (adjective)
5.    Desert (noun) and desert (verb)
6.    Deliberate (adjective) and deliberate (verb)
7.    Entrance (noun) and entrance (verb)
8.    Invalid (adjective) and invalid (noun)
9.    Lead (metal) and lead (verb)
10.    Minute (noun) and minute (adjective)
11.    Resign (as in resignation) and resign (as in signature)
12.    Row (line) and row (argument)
13.    Sow (noun) and sow (verb)
14.    Tear (verb) and tear (noun)
15.    Wound (past tense of wind) and wound (noun)

Let us understand the heteronyms from below mentioned sentences.

•    She will read the letter that her elder brother read last month.
•    I will resume my job search after updating my resume.
•    I want to present you the best anniversary present.
•    Close the door as the dust storm is getting close.
•    I want you to separate the books and keep it into two separate racks.
•    The guard will permit you to auditorium if you show him a valid permit.
•    They alternate the currency through alternate machine.

What is Allegory in Poetry with Examples?

An allegory refers to a figure of speech and a literary device, which is widely used in varied forms of arts. It is a set of symbols that act together to make the text coherent and concise. The main objective of using an allegory is to convey the hidden ideas and concepts of the piece of art and literature to the readers, listeners and viewers. In other words, it helps readers and listeners understand the symbolic and hidden meanings that are represented by the characters or events in the poems or stories. Generally, a writer conveys a lesson or moral to the readers through the characters, setting and plots, which called as an allegory.

A poem is a piece of writing that uses similes or metaphors to convey the feelings or ideas in a rhythmic form to the listeners and readers. In order to convey the deep emotion, the poet uses a lot of imagery. In an allegorical poem, the words act as a set of symbols so as to convey the hidden emotions and feelings. An allegorical poem is a poem that has two meanings, one is literal meaning and another is symbolic meaning. Literal meaning means non figurative sense of the words or without any exaggeration, but the symbolic meaning means the hidden words beneath the surface or between the lines. In simple words, allegorical poetry is a kind of poetry that have two meanings one is literal meaning - exactly the same what is written and another is symbolic, which mean a listener or reader needs to interpret the text in order to identify what the poet is trying to say.

A list of allegorical poems is mentioned below:

•    The Frog by Norman Crocker
•    In by Thomas Martin
•    Love and Ecstasy by Gerry Legister
•    Style by Leon Enriquez
•    Prince and Purple Rain by  James Horn
•    Hell Sent by Elissa Quigley
•    Back to Heave by James Horn
•    The Faerie Queene by Edmund Spenser
•    Water of Life by Tom Arnone
•    An Elusive Dream by James Horn

What is the Concept of Tragedy in Literature?

In literature, tragedy is a form of drama that explains depressing or sad events. Generally, the tragedy based drama is written by an author to draw the attention of readers on the human suffering and sorrowful events. It is a literally work or a work of art that intends to describe the misfortune, terrible events or some kind of disaster, encountered by the protagonist. 

A literary tragedy is a piece of writing that encompasses lively, fearless, courageous, brave and noble characters who face powerful or big hurdles and obstacles externally as well as internally. These characters play a courageous role and epitomized bravery, boldness and dignity when act in a tragedy based drama. In the drama, they act in such a way that shows their bravery and the human spirit at the time danger or death.

Tragedy in literature describes a series of sorrowful events or incidents in the lives of the main characters. The misfortune that happens in their lives makes them weak or ruins their happy lives. According to the English literature, tragedy is divided into six parts that are mentioned below:

1.  Plot: It is an essence of the tragedy based drama. A plot means the arrangement of the events. The plot is categorized into acts and scenes in order to create powerful scenic effects in a natural development.
2.  Character: Characters are the men and women who play the role of hero, heroine and villain. The hero and heroine play a lead role in the drama.
3.  Thought: A thought is communicated with the help of strong dialogues and speeches.
4.  Diction: It is means through which the characters express their feelings, thoughts or suffering to the audience.
5.  Song: A song is embellished with a different kind of artistic element.
6.  Spectacles: Spectacles refer to the theatrical effects presented on the stage. It includes, the scene of human suffering, dances, loud lamentations, colorful attire of the main characters and their appearances.

What is the Effect of Alliteration in Poetry

Alliteration is a literary device, which occurs in a series of words that have similar first consonant sound.  In other words, alliteration is identified when a series of words in a row have the same kind of sounds at the starting of the first letter. For example, She Sells Sea Shells on the Seashore. (Here,‘s’ is the most repeated consonant, so this is an alliterative phrase). The word ‘Alliteration’ originated from the Latin word ‘litera’ meaning ‘letters of the alphabet’. The main purpose of using alliteration in poetry is to draw the attention of the readers through the rhythmic phrase. Besides, it is also used to indicate that the words that have similar consonant sounds are important and convey a valuable message.

Alliteration is not only used in poetry, but also it is used in newspapers to create catchy headlines. Authors often use alliteration in newspapers, stories or poetries to get the attention of the readers. Let us understand the effect of alliteration in poetry.

1.    It creates a rhythm in the poem. By using alliteration, a poet creates a rhythmic sound in the poem. It makes the text more entertaining and appealing.

2.    The significance of using alliterative phrases in the poem is that it helps the listeners and readers to memorize the poetry. The repetition of a consonant sound within a line of the poetry tends to roll off the tongue. This rhythmic word enables a listener to remember the complete poem.

3.    Most of the words in the poem are lyrical, but the use of alliteration involves the listeners and readers completely.

4.    The use of alliteration in the poetry amuses and entertains the child. Many nursery rhymes encompass alliterative phrases that make the kids laugh. For example.

Hickory, dickory, dock,
The mouse ran up the clock,
The clock struck one, 
The  mouse ran down,
Hickory, dickory, dock.

5.    It creates a specific mood of the readers and listeners. The alliterative effect in the poetry often captures the attention of kids as well as adults. Besides, the alliterative words like ‘The Muffin Man’’, ‘Dull as Dirt’’, ‘’Tiny Tots’’, “Jack and Jill’ and ‘Incy Wincy Spider’, etc. create a comical effect and are widely used for advertisements.

Difference between a Simile and a Metaphor

Simile and metaphor both are extensively used in literary works. These are used to make comparison or to explain a concept. It is little tricky to understand the use of simile and metaphor. Both are poetic device and commonly used in English language to embellish the text. Let us see the difference between a simile and a metaphor.


A simile is a metaphor, but not all metaphors are recognized as the simile. It is a type of metaphor in which the comparisons is made with the help of some specific words such as ‘like’ or ‘as’.

For example:

•    Her cheeks are red like a rose.
•    She is busy as bee.
•    He is as tall as a giraffe.
•    They fought like cat and dog.
•    Her voice is as sweet as sugar.

1.    A simile is a figure of speech that is used to compare two different things so as to create a new meaning. It is more poetic than metaphor.
2.    A simile represents to be like something or someone. In simple words, a thing cannot be substituted for the other thing completely.
3.    A simile always uses the words ‘like’ and ‘as’.


A metaphor is a literary device, which directly states a comparison. In other words, it made the comparison between the subjects that are unrelated.

For example:

•    My life is an open book.
•    She is the apple of my eye.
•    The wheels of justice turn slowly.
•    I was lost in a sea of nameless faces.
•    Words are the weapons with which we wound.

1.    A metaphor is a figure of speech and it compares two things without using ‘like’ or ‘as’.
2.    A metaphor is a substitution or an equation, whereas a simile is an approximation.
3.    A metaphor usually uses word like ‘is’, ‘are’, ‘was’ or ‘were’.

Difference between Demonstrative Pronoun and Demonstrative Adjective

Demonstrative pronoun and demonstrative adjective both sound identical and both modify the noun, but in a different way. The main difference between a demonstrative pronoun and a demonstrative adjective is that a demonstrative pronoun can stand alone, whereas a demonstrative adjective is followed by the noun. Let us understand the demonstrative pronoun and adjective in detail.

Demonstrative Pronoun

A demonstrative pronoun is a pronoun that represents something, which is already mentioned. It is used to indicate something important in a sentence. These types of pronouns can be either plural or singular that points out items in distance or time. Suppose a thing or many things are represented in a sentence, so the demonstrative pronoun will be either far or near in distance or time. For near in distance or time – words like ‘this’ or ‘these’ will be used and for far in distance or time – words like ‘that’ or ‘those’ will be used.

•    A demonstrative pronoun will always identify a noun. It is used in place of a noun.
•    A demonstrative pronoun is primarily used to explain a thing, place or an animal. Besides, it is also used to describe a person who is identified.


•    This is my house. (Singular)
•    Could you give me that? (Singular)
•    These are my favorites. (Plural)
•    Those belong to Cathy. (Plural)

A demonstrative adjective is an adjective that is used to identify or demonstrate specific things, animals or people. The adjectives that modify nouns are ‘this’, ‘that’, ‘those’ and ‘these’. These words come before the nouns in the sentence. Like demonstrative pronoun, the demonstrative adjective also uses ‘this’ and ‘that’ for singular nouns and ‘these’ and ‘those’ for plural nouns.

•    A demonstrative adjective is useful when you want to make it clear which noun (place, person or thing) you would like to describe.
•    A demonstrative adjective identify the words omitted in a sentence or highlight their importance.


This is the best gift of my life. (Singular)
That dress is so classy. (Singular)
Those earrings suit me very well. (Plural)
These books contain interesting stories. (Plural)

From above mentioned points, it is proved that demonstrative pronouns and demonstrative adjectives use the same words (this, that, those, these) to modify nouns. However, the difference between these two is that demonstrative pronouns come before a verb or these stand alone. On the other hand, demonstrative adjectives always appear before a noun.

What is a Hyperbole in Literary Terms? and its Functions

Hyperbole is a figure of speech, which means over-statement or over- exaggeration. It is derived from the Greek word and mainly used to emphasize a specific piece of information, feeling and any other statement. Besides, it is also used to create humor so as to get the attention of the listeners. Hyperbole is a rhetorical device and sometimes called as auxesis. Many writers or speakers use hyperbole in poetry and oratory in order to create an impression or emphasize their words or to instill strong feelings.

Hyperbole is used in the literature for exaggeration, but it is not meant to be taken literary or exactly. In simple words, the literal interpretation of hyperbole cannot be true, but the exaggeration technique successfully expresses a certain point, which a speaker has intended to convey. For instance, ‘Sherry runs faster than the winds’ (Here, according to the speaker’s point of view, Sherry’s speed is very fast, but it was not said in a literal tone). The speaker has used a hyperbole to describe Sherry’s running pace.

Hyperbole is a metaphorical term, which creates a humorous effect and makes the text amusing and entertaining. Hyperbole can be used in different forms such as excitement, pain, humor, etc. Based on the context, an author uses hyperbole to express his intention, opinion or viewpoint. Let us see the functions of hyperbole in detail.

Functions of Hyperbole

•    Hyperbole is a literary technique, which is used intentionally to exaggerate something and to create certain effects.

•    Hyperbole is used in prose to create humor or to emphasize something. It can be used in a story to empathize a famous feature of character or a particular action or feeling.

•    In literature, hyperbole depends on imagery, which is a visual description. Through hyperbole, an author creates a humorous effect. For example, ‘I am so hungry that I could eat a horse’ or ‘I went home and made the biggest sandwich of all time’.

•    Hyperbole is widely used in poetry. It is also used to emphasize opposing ideas or statements.

Why Should You Avoid Using Cliches in Your Writing

Cliches are the words and phrases that have been overused in writing. These are often used by the writers to make their content more appealing. Somehow, the cliches have lost their value and effectiveness in the writing. They are no longer interesting. Being a writer, it is ideal to avoid using cliches when you are writing something fresh and important. The overuse of cliches not only makes a sentence boring, but also it sounds meaningless. Neither they convey anything important message nor do they add value to the content.  Here, some useful tips are discussed that will help you understand why you should avoid using cliches in your writing.

•    The texts that are full of cliches create an impression in the readers’ mind that either the writer is not creative or he or she is very lazy to pen down his or her own thoughts and idea. With an overuse of cliches, a writer suppresses his or her creativity.
•    If you really want to maintain freshness and coherence in your writing, you must avoid adding cliches. To make your writing interesting, you can rephrase your ideas. Apart from this, ask your friend to proofread your piece of writing so as to avoid cliches and other padding words and phrases.
•    Cliches are mostly used in a specific type of writing such as journalism. However, when you are writing in a formal way, then it is better to avoid cliches as they are not always clear.

A good writer should avoid following cliches:

•    Think outside the box
•    At the end of the day
•    The fact of the matter
•    Fit for purpose
•    In any way
•    When all said and done
•    In this day and age
•    Avoid something like a plague
•    At this moment in time
•    In a nutshell
•    All walk of life
•    At the end of the day
•    Too little, too late
•    Sleeping like dead
•    Never say never
•    Actions speak louder than words
•    Laughter is the best medicine
•    As bold as brass
•    Going forward
•    Two wrongs don’t make a right

Importance and Effect of Assonance in Poetry

Assonance refers to pairing or matching of vowel sounds. It is a counterpart of alliteration. Alliteration is identified by the repetition of a consonant sound within the line of poetry, whereas assonance is determined by the repetition of a vowel sound within the line of poetry. Assonance occurs when two or more words close to one another repeat the similar vowel sound but begin with the different consonant sounds.

For example:

•    I feel restless and depressed.
•    The rain in spain falls mainly in the plains.
•    Fleet feet sweep by sleeping geeks.
•    Slow the low gradual moan came in the snowing.
•    If I bleat when I speak it‘s because I just got fleeced.
•    Merry went here and there and everywhere. 
•    On a proud rounding cloud.

Effect and importance of assonance in poetry

•    In poetry, assonance plays a significant role in creating a musical tone in the text.
•    It helps certain types of words to stand out.
•    It maintains a correct text flow.
•    Assonance adds internal rhyme and makes the sound of a poem rhythmic.
•    It is also used to give ‘hint’ for literary symbolism.
•    The assonance is used in poems to indicate important words, usually nouns.
•    It creates line between two ideas.
•    It also used by many poets to create a ‘bright sounding’ lines.
•    It is primarily ideal for the poems that are meant for reading purpose or for performance type poetry.
•    It relates to ideas that are visually expressed.
•    With right vowel sounds, the lines of a poem become more musical to the listener’s ear. Hence, it sets the mood of the reader or listener through long or high vowel sounds.
•    In the poetry, assonance has a subtler effect as compared to alliteration.

What are the Functions of Adverbial Clause

Dependent clauses which act as an adverb are called adverbial clauses. Similar to other clauses, these clauses either modify a verb or an adjective or an adverb. Adverbs perform basically eight different types of functions which are as follows:

1. Adverb Phrase Head: This type of phrases consists of an adverb and some modifiers. Few examples of adverb phrase head are, however, quietly, quickly, etc.

2.  As Adjective Phrase Modifier: These phrases either modify an adjective or describe an adjective. 

For example:
•    Habitually late comers will not be allowed in the class.
•    Your newborn baby son is very thin.

3. As Adverb Phrase Modifier: These phrases or words either describe or modify an adverb phrase.  

For example:
•    The noise from the next door is extremely loud.
•    President’s actions are almost always perfect.

4. As Prepositional Phrase Modifier:  A prepositional phrase modifier modifies or describes a prepositional phrase. 

For example:
•    His diagrams are not very much like the original.
•    You seem rather driving under the influence of alcohol.

5.  As Adjunct Adverbials:  Adjunct adverbials are the words or phrases which modify or describe an entire clause by providing extra information like time, purpose, place, condition. 

For example:
•    The construction company had to demolish the old museum on the prime location so that an upscale apartment can be made.
•    You will definitely regret in future if you do not take precautionary measures now.

6.  As Disjunct Adverbials: Disjunct adverbial is a word which provides additional information to make the sentence more meaningful. This basically gives an insight of the attitude or tone of the person speaking. 

For example:
•    Surprisingly, none of the students qualified the entrance test.
•    Honestly, I have no idea of what you are saying.

7.  As Conjunct Adverbials: These phrases or words link two or more clauses trying to derive a textual relationship between them. 

For example:
•    Peter accepted the decision even if it meant he will lose his job.
•    Except for high blood sugar, I am hale and hearty.

Using Coordinating Conjunctions to Combine Sentences

A coordinating conjunction joins words, phrases and a set of words in a sentence. It joins similar types of words or phrases. In other words, coordinating conjunction connects similar elements such as two nouns, two independent clauses, two verbs or two modifiers. In English grammar, coordinating conjunctions are, and, or, for, so, but, yet, nor. A simple way to memorize the coordinating conjunctions is to remember the word FANBOYS. F is for, A is And, N is Nor, B is But, O is Or, Y is Yet and S is So.

Things to remember

•    Usually, when two independent clauses are connected through coordinating conjunction, a comma should be used before the coordinating conjunction. For example, she wants to perform on stage, but she is very shy.

•    Coordinating conjunctions come between the words or phrases, which they are joining. For example, John likes singing and dancing.

•    Do not add a comma, when using the coordinating conjunction to join two items. For example, He likes pizza and donut.

•    The comma before the coordinating conjunction is optional when it is used with a list of items (three or more) in a sentence.  For instance, she has purchased fruits, vegetables, pastry, milk, bread and butter.

•    If a sentence starts with a coordinating conjunction, then it is not followed by a comma.

Coordinating conjunction shows that the elements that they connect are equally important. Let us see some example sentences using coordinating conjunctions.

1.    She wore a long jacket, for it was cold outside.
2.    Suzan bought her mom a handbag, and her mother loved it.
3.    He does not like butter, nor does he eat cheese.
4.    I want to buy a car, but I do not have enough money.
5.    You can cook your food, or you can order from a restaurant.
6.    I had a cavity in my tooth, yet I ate chocolate yesterday.
7.    Harry was hungry, so he ate pizza.

Difference between Demonstrative and Relative Pronoun

Demonstrative pronoun points to a person or subject which is at a distance from you and you would highlight the distance between you by saying so. For example, let’s say you and one of your classmates is sitting on a coffee table and you see that there is another person sitting at one corner of the cafe and you recognize him. So you would introduce to your friend as “that guy at the corner used to be my batch mate during my school days”. Now when you walk up to the guy and introduce your friend you would say “This guy is my best buddy”.  These kinds of pronouns imply a special stress in spoken English. Demonstrative pronoun may sound like a demonstrative adjective but is used differently in the sentence. It acts as a pronoun taking the place of a noun.

Relative pronouns are used in complex sentences where it introduces a subordinate clause. In such cases you do not show the distance between you and another person or object rather you point to subject of the action. In simple words that is used to combine two different sentences into a single sentence. Let us consider the two sentences mentioned below:

•    I was preparing for the civil service examination.

•    I cleared the civil service examination.

Now using the relative pronoun that we can combine the above two sentences as follows:

•    I was preparing for the civil service examination that helped me clearing the civil service examination.

Relative pronoun provides more information to the sentence when used after the noun. The expanded form of relative pronouns is called as indefinite relative pronouns. For example, consider the below sentences:

•    He did whatever he thought was correct.

•    Whomever the boss thinks is sincere, will get awarded by him.

What are Correlative Conjunctions and its Usage

A conjunction is a part of speech. It is categorized into different types such as coordinating conjunction, subordinating conjunction and correlative conjunction. Correlative conjunctions are paired conjunctions that always work in a pair to connect words, phrases and clauses. The correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs. Both the conjunction words are used in different places in a sentence. Some of the correlative conjunctions are mentioned below:

•    Not only- but also
•    Neither – nor
•    Either – or
•    Both – and
•    Not – but 
•    Whether – or
•    As – as
•    As many – as
•    Rather – than
•    No sooner – than
•    Such – that
•    Between – and
•    Hardly – when
•    From – to
•    Scarcely - when

Correlative conjunctions are quite similar to coordinating conjunctions. These conjunctions join words or phrases that have equal importance and structure. Let us understand the correlative conjunctions and it's usage in sentences.

1.    James eats not only pizza, but also burrito.
2.    Neither Ema nor Sherry has appeared for the test. 
3.    I want either a laptop or a tab.
4.    Both English and Spanish are spoken in America.
5.    There are not five, but ten types of mangoes are available in the market.
6.    Whether you qualify the test or not depends on your scores.
7.    If your work is as important as mine, then you should give more priority to your work.
8.    There are as many computers as there are students.
9.    He was playing games on the computer rather than completing his homework.
10.    No sooner had I arrived at the airport than the flight landed.
11.    She is such a cunning lady that she never helps her neighbours.
12.    The show will start between 6 p.m. and 7 p.m.
13.    Hardly had I closed the door, when my friend came to the house.
14.    The news will be telecast from 9 p.m. to 10 p.m.
15.    Linda had scarcely reached the office when the meeting started.

English Grammar